Kingship was abolished with the execution of Charles.
The question was how the country would be run.
One answer was given by Thomas Hobbes.
Hobbes believed that humans would compete violently for power and wealth if they were left to themselves.
England did not share Hobbes's desire for a benevolent absolute monarch.
A republican government was proclaimed.
The executive power was lodged in a council of state and the leg islative power was in the surviving members of Parliament.
Oliver Cromwell was in charge of the army.
The constitution was prepared by the army and invested in Charles I.
The sole power to raise taxes was given to Parliament.
Parliament was dismissed in 1655.
Cromwell divided England into twelve military districts.
Reflecting Puritan ideas of morality, Cromwell's state forbade sports, kept the theaters closed, and suppressed the press.
Roman Catholics had the right to practice their faith, but al Christians only had some degree of toleration.
In August 1649, he led an army to reconquer Ireland after he had been associated with sedition and heresy.
Following Cromwell's reconquest, the English banned Ca tholicism in Ireland, executed priests, and took land from Catholics for English and Scottish settlers.
Irish hatred for England was a legacy of these brutal acts.
The ineffectual son succeeded his father when he died.
The English were ready to restore the monarchy after being fed up with military rule.
Charles II was brought to the throne by the Restoration of 1660.
The established Anglican Church and the houses of Parliament were also restored.
Legislation was passed by the Church of England that denied them the right to vote, hold public office, preach, and even assemble for meetings.
Charles II stripped Puritans and Catholics of their memberships in the Anglican Church in order to work with Parliament.
In 1670, Charles entered into a secret agreement with vote, preach, assemble, hold public his cousin Louis XIV, after finding that Parliament did not grant him an adequate income.
The French king promised to subsidize Charles's income, and in re- office, and attend or teach at the turn Charles would relax the laws against Catholics.
The anti-Catholic sentiment swept England when the details of the treaty were leaked.
The worst fears of English anti Catholics were realized when James II succeeded his brother.
James violated the Test Act by appointing Roman Catholics to positions of authority.
James granted religious freedom to all in order to broaden his base of support.
The English throne was offered to James's Protestant daugh ter Mary and her Dutch husband, Prince Wil iam of Orange, by a group ofEminent persons in Par liament and the Church of England.
James II fled to France.
Mary was crowned queen of England in 1689.
The principle that sovereignty, the ultimate Laws to be made by Parliament power in the state, was divided between king and Parliament was established by the revolution.
The Stuart kings wanted to impose absolute rule on England.
Locke believed that a govern Limitations placed on the rights of Catholics that overstepped its proper function became a tyranny.
Locke meant rights basic to al men because they have the ability to reason.
He argued that the people have the right to revolt.
Although the events of 1688 and 1689 brought England closer to Locke's ideal, they did not constitute a democratic revolution.
The upper classes were represented in Parliament.
The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands won their independence from Spain in the late 16th century.
The treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War recognized the independence of the Republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
Dutch ideas and attitudes played a significant role in shaping a new and modern world.
The United Provinces developed its own model of a constitutional state.
A republic is a state in which power rests in the hands of the people and is exercised through elected representatives.
Her culture was steeped in Jewish literature, legends, and mystical Gluckel of Hameln and secular works, and she was deeply religious.
She relied on the Bible.
Her language has a lot of references to the Scriptures.
The importance of the town of Hameln in Lower Saxony sat down to write her autobiography for students who wish to learn about seventeenth in 1690 A JewISH WIDOW IN THE SMALL GERMAN century business practices.
The Jews were expelled in 1649.
The way in which Gluckel was treated was both ordinary and extraordinary because of the constant harassment to which Jews were subjected.