Many Romans who wanted to take on their old enemy established the conquered territories as provinces again.
In Africa, Asia, and the Alps in Third Punic War, the infl ammatory language worked.
The area at the top of the hill overlooking the town of Rome Provence is still called del after a long siege of the cita Gaul.
The city of Carthage was destroyed in 146 B.C.E.
The governors were in the city.
Aemilianus shed tears at the sight of justice being administered to Roman citizens.
The city of Car was given to private individuals, who were given to Rome, who would ruin it for a century.
Recolonized it is an example.
Most of the profi ts Cannae came from Italy.
Rome was once again from land after this indecisive war.
In the provinces, people were drawn into eastern affairs as some of the Greek poleis made money from land, slaves, and corruption.
The Roman Republic was transformed in Macedonian and Seleucid kings after Rome's help against the cess.
Rome won many ways because of its military success abroad.
In the ancient world, successful military campaigning nated any opposition, as a result of this war.
There was a difference of opinion about the more bondsmen and women as Rome expanded.
More than 200,000 men and women were cap meant to do as they liked, but the Romans thought it meant tured as prisoners of war and brought to Italy as slaves.
The nature of Roman food was changed by the Roman Sen Numbers and they decided to annex society.
The Greek mainland is now owned by each small householder.
The Romans burned the city of ancient Greece in order to set an example to the rich to keep one to three slaves.
By the end of the Republic, there is plunder in Rome.
Between two and three million slaves were in Italy when the expansion began, and it continued with the establishment of 35 to 40 percent of the population.
2 6 5 - 1 3 3 B.
Between 135 and 71 B.C.E., three great slave uprisings disrupted Italy.
The Second Punic War was to take his army to Sicily to rally the slaves, but they couldn't get enough ships to cross the sea.
The rebellion of Macedonia was crushed after it was killed.
Thousands of slaves worked in agriculture.
Garbage col slavery was the most undesirable job in the Republic.
Although freed men and Romans who watched their traditional women were willing to do way of life fade, these changes were noted sadly by many allies.
The most lucrative jobs were lamented by one Roman.
Some of the higher-status jobs were taken over by slaves after Rome's victory in the Punic Wars.
After Rome's, it was decided that the Roman character should change.
The Republic The Biography on page 121 describes the successful as transmuting into something else entirely, even as a playwright who had been a slave.
Some Romans mourned it.
Governors of provinces were able to make fortunes that were undreamed of in the Republic's earlier years.
With a growing distance to worry, Romans passed laws to protect the rich and the poor as the number of Hellenistic states increased.
The slaves in the house ers suffered a worsening of their economic situations because of the punishment for murdering.
The example of Cincinnatus, who only fought for one tus.
A senator will repeat when foes are far away.
The military time was extended because Dur argued that the state should enforce the harsh law.
There were instances of slave between soldiers and their generals.
Large-scale slave rebellions broke out as well as the large-scale treachery that crop up.
The person claimed to have translated Greek plays into Latin.
Terence was a person.
He did not remain true Hellenistic literature according to Rome's growing interest in his accusers.
The young slave was brought to ted that he combined plots and created Rome and sold to a senator, M. Terentius.
He said that precise translations promise.
He was often turned into the best Greek plays by the senator.
These criticisms show freedom.
A person is trying to find a new career.
Ter was given intellectual gifts that he could judge.
31 year old men were interested in literature in 159 B.C.E.
He received a mixed reaction from his ex-lover, who had the same name.
He was described as being of medium stature, graceful in Rome, and like so much else available to educated slaves, these critiques were conducted when Rome fell in love with Greek in person.
He addressed his critics intellectual life.
The ambiguity of the background debates tells us a lot about the openly 1.
The cosmopolitan nature of the artistic world and the Hellenizing of the Republic can be seen in the life of Terence.
The experience of living in the city of pla politan city prepared him for giarism, which means that someone else patrons to their client soldiers grew rich on ranches that raised animals for meat, loyalty to their general rather than to Rome.
Soldiers from abroad, particularly North Africa, stayed longer in the army.
The displaced citi went bankrupt and soldiers returned to their homes in the city.
Their wives and children turned out to be propertyless day laborers who worked on the family farm.
Gangs of new mobs replaced these plantations and created more problems for the nobil slaves.
The fields that had been cultivated were slowly ity because they represented a potential turn to produce olives and wine grapes.
They tried to make more money.
2 6 5 - 1 3 3 B.
The problem of lost jobs taken by newly captured slaves and the traditional love of utility could not be solved with a short-term solution.
The Romans had learned that the situation had become volatile.
Rome's military success was due in part to the new intellectual and engineering achievements that supported the legions.
As the Republican, armies had to forge many rivers, and the armies conquered some of the great centers of Helle Roman engineers invented ingenious devices to help nistic culture from Greece to North Africa.
The army crossed after the capture of slaves from Greece.
Engineers were able to build art, literature, and learning in Rome, and many pontoon bridges were built faster by adding boats to the river and anchoring them at the Greek.
Helle intended to cross Rome.
The family was described by Caesar.
As a Carthaginian orator, one Roman feared the soldiers would fight from the top of the tower.
Even Chinese sources were impressed with the engines of the censor.
They were documented during the early Republic.
The arch is an example.
The list of senators was revised by the Greeks, who deleted those who used post-and-lintel construction.
They could build a variety of structures.
By using old values, the Romans enhanced the size, range, and ability of their constructions to those who neglected their farms.
The arch efforts were not successful.
The greatest examples of Roman civil engineering can be seen in the aqueducts.
The moral strength of old Rome was eroded by the use of aqueducts.
The Republic was becoming a place where people had a huge thirst for water.
We will see the years of the empire in the next chapter.
In the third and second centuries B.C.E., an astonishing 22,237,000 gallons of expansion were directed by the aqueducts.
These structures were marvels of Roman engineering, featuring solid design, practical application, and visual appeal.
In the late third century B.C.E., Roman architects discovered a new building material that opened even more architectural possibilities than the per fection of the arch.
Masonry found that mixing volcanic brick earth with lime and water resulted in a strong, waterproof building material.
Roman engineers built monumental aqueducts to carry water.
The water was brought from the springs 30 miles away and the knowledge of the arch allowed to serve the city of Nimes.
For even more exibility, the engineering maintains a constant decline.
A row of arches spans a large space.
Builders constructed a huge warehouse in Rome in the early 19th century.
This technique is used on the front of the temple.
The Pantheon amphitheater resembles the Greek temples we design in Chapter 2 because of the new technology.
The Romans' engineering skills were revealed when most structures in Rome were made of dome.
The growing heavy concrete base supports the weight of the whole and began to evoke architectural tastes.
In this new architecture, we can see the degree to which the Romans and Greeks used to use natural light and rain.
Early in the empire, the fullest development of this temple took place.
Roman literature emerged in the third century B.C.E.
It was built in 125 C.E.
The society is a perfect combination of cultures.
All the types of people that populated their world were laughed at by the final PDF to printer.
The serious side of Roman character was emphasized in the Latin prose literature of the Republic.
Cicero and Julius Caesar were two men who combined literary talent with public service.
Cicero's writings shaped Latin literature, which was shaped by the decline of the Republic.
He was in the center of public life because of his oratory and strong opinions about Roman values, but he was not involved in politics.
A revealing picture of the personality of this man can be found in his more than nine hundred letters.
His letters show him to be a comic character.
Latin comedy is self-centered.
Cicero's els were used for their Italian audience.
Caesar used comedies to improve his reputation in Rome.
The man is threatening to beat the slave.
The man said that his narrative was vivid and exciting.
By the middle of the second century B.C.E., the Roman Republic had reached a crucial threshold.
The play on words associat lic had established political and social structures that ing a punch with food, as well as the suggestion that steadily fueled its success.
The nobles didn't really care about the starving in crafting their society.
All types of Roman characters were included in the plays.
Their much-loved precepts, established from smart, scheming slaves to boastful soldiers and in a simpler age, would prove unsustainable in a future clever prostitutes.
These plays were recognized by Romans who watched them.
The Senate only appropriated a small amount to help Tiberius with the 133-44 B.C.E.
Tiberius announced he was running for reelection.
The second term of wealth brought to Rome by tribunes had not been done for a long time and drove prices up.
Tiberius's opponents argued that it was illegal when the wars ended.
Slaves and wealth diminished.
Grain prices went up because of a riot at an assembly grain shortage.
In 135 B.C.E., some senators with their followers beat shortage worsened.
The interruption of Rome's grain supply was a threat to political murder.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus proposed reforms in order to stave off disaster.
Granaries, roads, and bridges were built to improve the distribution of grain in the city, and these projects created jobs for many Romans.
The price of grain was trying to be kept at 133-123 B.C.E.
They credited their mother, Cornelia, with giving tax collectors and placing equestrians in the courts that they needed to tried provincial governors accused of abusing their privilege for the good of the Roman people.
The Gracchi seemed to many Romans to represent the politically motivated to destroy the Senate, which best of republican men--devoted to a public life.
Grain might weaken the patron-client relationship that helps the poor would increase their own clients and represent the core of senatorial power.
Regardless of the motives of the Senate, they set themselves apart from the rest of the aristocracy, so they staged an insurrection that no longer obeyed the demands of the pub.
When Tiberius became tri martial law, the Senate issued an emergency decree, declaring interests for the people of Rome.
Tiberius believed that Rome's problems came from the Gaius.
The Senators' willingness to use force to protect the migrations into the city came about because of the decline of the small farmer.
The Gracchi's sacrifi ces did not help the Repub Tiberius.
Their careers focused Rome's attention on the plight of the soldier-farmers, but the brothers had also established a styled masters of the world, and have not a clod of new style of republican government.
Keeping power in the Senate.
Rome had moved a long way from the days when it was seen as a nobil that could not farm or serve in the army.
Tiberius proposed an agrarian law that would redistribute public land to landless Romans, and Gracchi were the only ones to die in this struggle.
The idea that violence would descend upon the political may have made a difference, but it alarmed the greedy arena.
Roman public life would not be the same again.
I g h t o f t h e R e p, 1 3 3 - 4 4 B.
The generals wanted a bigger share of the prosperity that power brought, just as the Italian allies wanted a bigger share of the prosperity that power brought.
There are ties to play a role in politics.
The political took place between 90 and 88 B.C.E.
The "Social War" generals are the ones who revolted against the Gracchi.
The first general to rule based on the violence that devastated the countryside was Gaius Marius.
In order to address the problem of a governorship in Asia where he was given the African wars and the shortage of command to lead the armies against a second threat Tiberius initiated a way of to Rome.
He created a professional army, and his supporters were worried that he would eliminate the requirement for soldiers to guard Sulla's property.
He arranged for the Assembly to give command of diers on the payroll, making official the previous campaign against Mithradates to Marius.
They were promised an army into Rome to confront Marius.
He culti hostilities between the two generals made a perma vated army with many rootless and desperate men, changing the peaceful Forum men who were loyal only to him.
Sulla's policies returned to Rome in 83 B.C.E.
after he defeated Mithradates.
He repealed laws in the north.
In his battles against Africans and Celts, he favored equestrians and killed off his political opponents.
The Senate in-command was strengthened by him.
The tradition of Senate leadership to suffi ce has a new importance for generals.
Power politics began to vacuum up as the Roman constitutional system was being changed.
Etruscan monarchy was defeated by people who wanted power and personal gain.
Roman society was murdered by Julius Caesar.
During the winter, Caesar sup spent time with enemy, Mithradates, and Mediterranean pirates.
The triumvi attempted reform instead of bringing peace.
Rome needed a form of rate to be an arena in which the three pow government would restore stability to the warring groups.
The events came to a head.
Caesar applied his genius for organization to leading armies to confront a new threat in Rome.
The grain dole eastern frontier was reformed by him.
Julia established an ambitious program of public her infant after she died in childbirth.
With her death, little was left to create jobs for the unemployed.
To help Caesar and Pompey.
Caesar's poli popular, and they declared Pompey sole con cies extended widely.
Caesar even reformed the calendar after Pompey accepted this command from astronomer who had accompanied Cleopatra to the Senate.
Revenge from the popular general is ensured by the new.
Cae "Julian calendar" added an extra day every four years to the solar year, which had forbidden him to days, and brought his army into Italy in 49 B.C.E.
A new civil war had use throughout the West, but there was no calendar made in 1582.
Caesar couldn't solve the problem of how to govern the Republic.
Caesar did not lie to Rome, unlike Cincinnatus, who came from one of the oldest noble fami with whom we began this chapter.
Before he could take power, Caesar needed the tenure, as he proclaimed himself dictator for life after the civil wars.
He refused the title of king to the army.
He took on many conquests in Gaul despite avoiding offending the republicans.
He established a priesthood to offer sacrifi ce to his popularity after he wore royal regalia.
The ancient writers said that each person's spirit was called a "genius" by the Romans.
Perhaps a living Roman was so honored that he was a brilliant man.
The civil war between Caesar and Pompey began in 49 B.C.E., when the Republic of Rome was changing.
Caesar was in charge when Pompey went to Egypt.
I g h t o f t h e R e p, 1 3 3 - 4 4 B.
It appeared that they pitied Caesar at the same time that they revered Brutus.
Caesar is an important one.
When Caesar entered the house, he assigned his reasons for what he had done, legacy, and they beheld the body, as the senate rose.
They couldn't hear him, so they carried him through the Forum, with both hands, and pulled him out of the house.
He was the first to be dismayed.
Some people stopped the procession and shut their houses down.
The neck ers left their shops.
The benches, with the doors and tables, with his sword, but the wound was not in motion, one was running to see the heaped them into a pile, and another was running back.
Lepidus, Caesar's principal friends, brands from the pile, some ran to burn ably.
Caesar hid in other houses of the assassins, while others took control of his people's houses.
The city was ranged to the conspirators sword.
How did the chaos and confusion happen?
What caused the Romans to have steel in their face, and then met the rest of the group to support them.
Rome would be saved from a new power structure by this Brutus.
The conspirators were sim king.
The assassins had to move quickly because Caesar was planning a military campaign for March.
They had a plan to murder their leader.
The friend of Caesar joined the plot on March 15.
They surrounded the unwary dictator as he approached the Senate meeting place.
They pulled knives from the folds of their togas and plunged them into his body.
He died at the foot of the statue of Pompey.
Most of the killers thought they had done what was best for Rome.
They thought they were liberators who freed Rome from a dictator and would restore the Republic.
There is a portrait on the other side of the coin.
The attempt to celebrate a great victory on the coin was just propaganda.
The conspirators didn't have a plan beyond the murder.
They didn't provide for control of the army or for peace in the city.
They claimed to save the Republic.
There was a lot of chaos after the assassination.
Caesar's assassins produced this coin, marked with the Ides that were forged during the Struggle of the Orders of March, the date of Caesar's murder, and the dagger that crumbled under the stress of civil wars and murder.
From 509 B.C.E., the Republic of Rome rose to great power.
By that year, Rome had control of much of the Mediterranean world, and a system of wealthy slave own ers and a large standing army had replaced the citizen farmer-soldier who had laid the foundation for the Republic's success.
The Romans emphasized the ties between citizens and now violent power struggles are tearing at the social fabric.
Greek models of beauty and individualism were rediscovered by people who had preserved stories of Roman heroes.
Rome's transformation from republic to empire was led by Julius Caesar.
Historians have argued about Caesar's qualities.
The truth is somewhere between the extremes.
Caesar's murder did not solve anything despite the assassins' claims.
Until a leader could establish a new form of government that would last longer than the Republic, there would be more violence.
The patron-client system contributed to the strengths and rise of the West, the Assyrian and the Persian.
We saw 3 in Chapter 3.
Rome expanded its territories in the ancient world because of the rise of large Hellenistic monarchies.
Rome got a lot from these empires.
The United States government looks at the past.
Do you think Rome came to resemble the 1?
Support your answer.
"Pride in Family and City" traces the rise of form of government during the expansion of the Romans.
The old values of Rome were transformed pean countries that have changed the face of traditionally and new constructs slowly and violently.
Caesar Augustus is depicted in an idealized statue.
This portrayal shows that he was much more than he claimed.
Augustus wears the armor of a soldier instead of the toga of a citizen, and he carries the staff of an emperor in his left hand.
He claims that he was descended from the goddess Venus, mother of Cupid, because of his cupid astride dolphin.
Rome would be ruled by godlike soldiers now that the Roman Republic was dead.