Venetians made up for low Eastern demand by earning currency in the shipping industry and trade in firearms and slaves.
Genoa was Venice's trading rival.
Genoa dominated the northern route to Asia through the Black Sea after the Crusades ended.
The Genoese expanded their trade routes as far as Persia and the Far East.
The Genoese shifted their focus from trade to finance and from the Black Sea to the western Mediterranean in the 15th century.
When Spanish and Portuguese voyages began to explore the western Atlantic, Genoese merchants, navigators, and financiers provided their skil s to the Iberian monarchs.
Slavery was a major part of Venetian and Genoese trade.
Many Christians were chased by merchants in the Balkans.
After the loss of the Black Sea trade routes to the Ottomans, the Genoese sought new supplies of slaves in the West, eventually seizing or buying and selling the Guanches, Muslim prisoners and Jewish refugees.
Genoese and Venetian merchants became important players in the Atlantic slave trade with the growth of Spanish colonies in the New World.
Europeans launched new voyages of explora tion, commerce, and conquest in the 15th and early 16th century to spread Christianity, to overturn Italian and Ottoman domination of trade with the East, and to tap entirely new sources of wealth.
They ended up in the New World.
Europeans wanted to expand their international reach.
After the lows of the Black Death, Europe was experiencing a revival of population and economic activity.
Spices from the East were in high demand due to this revival.
The Otto mans conquered Constantinople and gave the Muslim empire control of trade routes to the east.
Europeans needed to find new sources of precious metal to trade with the Ottomans.
Expansion was made possible by religious fervor.
The Iberian Peninsula's Christian reconquista inspired the Portuguese and Spanish to continue the crusade.
The last remaining Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Spain.
Columbus parted across the Atlantic seven months later.
The desire to gain wealth and to spread Christianity was combined with the desire to chart new waters.
The European discoveries have been described as a reflection of Renaissance curiosity.
The journals kept by European voyagers attest to their motives and fascination with the new peoples and places they visited.
In 1498, a native of India asked the explorer what he wanted, and he replied, "Christians and spices."
The lack of an English knight who traveled extensively in the Middle East and Asia heightened the author's desire for exploration.
Although historians now consider the work men of the Spanish upper classes a skillful fiction, it had a great influence on how Europeans understood the world at the time.
Political opportunities are limited from an edition published around.
Mandeville is depicted approaching a walled city on the first stage of tious turned to the sea to seek their fortunes.
The voyages were made possible by the growth of government power.
The Spanish monarchy was strong enough to support foreign ventures.
In Portugal explorers looked to the monarchy for financial support and courage.
Many of the motives of explorers were shared by monarchs.
Competition among European monarchs was an important factor in encouraging the steady stream of expeditions that began in the late fif teenth century.
Ordinary men joined these voyages to escape poverty at home, to continue a family trade, or to find better lives as illegal immigrants in the colonies.
Sailors were ill-paid and life at sea meant danger, hunger, and overcrowding.
In a space of 1,600 to 2,000 square feet, 100 to 120 people lived and worked for months at a time.
The people who stayed at home had a strong interest in the process.
monarchs were influenced to provide or deny support for exploration by royal ministers.
The audience for tales of fantastic places and unknown peoples was served by the smal num ber of people who could read.
The tales of cannibals, one-eyed giants, men with the heads of dogs, and other marvels were believed for centuries.
European expansion was spurred by technological developments in shipbuilding, navigation, and weaponry.
The caravel was maneuverable and could be sailed with a smal crew.
The Portuguese could dominate in the larger vessels if it had a cannon.
The geographical knowledge of the classical world was created by the work.
It showed the world as round the classical knowledge of geography and introduced the idea of latitude and longitude to plot position accurately.
It introduced the concepts of significant errors.
Ptolemy was unaware of the Americas.
The introduction of Europeans to Asia in 1410 was smaller than it is.
Sailors were able to determine their position at sea using the magnetic compass.