Disaffection from the Solidarity leadership grew due to these.
A critical problem area between the two world wars had yet to be resolved.
The change in Soviet policy was clear.
It seemed unlikely that a repressive attempt to reestablish an empire would be possible, as evidenced by the rapid withdrawal of Soviet troops in Hungary.
The European Economic Community seemed to promise further realignment in the future.
In the summer of 1991, there was an attempted coup in the Soviet Union.
Gorbachev's presidency was threatened.
The democratic current that had developed in the Soviet Union since 1986 was asserted by massive popular demonstrations.
The suppression of democracy in China two years before was striking.
Gorbachev's authority waned after the attempted coup.
The Russian Republic's leadership became stronger.
The boundaries of eastern europe and central Asia were redrawn after the collapse of the soviet union.
The 1900-Present stage of world history used the occasion to gain full independence, though economic links with the Soviet Union remained.
Gorbachev struggled to win agreement on continued economic union and some other coordination despite other minority republics proclaiming independence as wel.
Gorbachev was doomed by his attempts to save a presidency that would have displaced on some survival of a greater Soviet Union.
Boris Yeltsin, the president of Russia and an early convert to communism, became the leader after the dissolution of the republic.
Yeltsin brought Russia's parliament under control.
The Commonwealth of Independent States won tentative agreement from most of the republics after the fall of the Soviet Union.
Tensions immediately surfaced about economic coordination and control of the military, where Russia is still the largest unit-sought, including nuclear control, amid challenges from the Ukraine and from two of the other republics with nuclear weaponry.
It was not clear how much unity there would be in the former Soviet Union.
Economic reform's fate was uncertain.
Russian leaders were hesitant to convert to a full market system.
Yeltsin's leadership deteriorated as the economy performed badly, individual profiteers pulled in huge fortunes, and Yeltsin's health deteriorated.
Terrorist acts by the rebels seemed to feed each other as a civil war broke out with the Muslim region of Chechnya.
In 1999, a new president, Vladimir Putin, promised to clean up corruption and install more effective government controls.
For 50 years most of the latvians had been afraid to speak out against the soviet takeover of their government in 1939.
The nationalist resistance movement was suppressed after World War II.
Tens of thousands of Latvians were killed and many were imprisoned or deported to Siberia.
In the late 1980s, when perestroika opened possibilities for change in the Soviet Union, Latvians were quick to act.
In 1990, they elected a new parliament that declared its intention to begin a transition to independence.
The August 1991 coup in Moscow opened the door to independence for the Baltic nation.
One of the first things the Latvians did was to take down statues of Soviet leaders.
The statue was erected on the day that it fell.
The results of elections were influenced by the government's suppression of the activities of rival political parties.
Some people want a return to the Soviet days of economic security and national glory.
Reformists were able to voice their concerns, but Putin tightened his hold on the state and media.
He refused to compromise on the Chechnya revolt.
Putin was re-elected as president in 2012 after finishing his second term as president in 2008.
At the end of the 20th century, the spread of multiparty democracy with free elections was associated with the end of the cold war.
Economic and political success in western Europe, including the drawing power of the Common Market, helped propel Spain, Portugal, and Greece to democratic systems in the mid-1970s.
The democratic wave hit Latin America.
Free elections replaced authoritarian controls in Argentina and Brazil.
Latin American countries except Cuba were in the democratic camp through the 1990s.
The system was accepted by revolutionaries in Central America in the late 1980s.
Mexico's first president was elected from a party other than the PRI, which had been in charge since the revolution.
South Korea and Taiwan had Democratic systems in the 1980s.
In the Philippines, popular pressure led to the ousting of an authoritarian ruler.
Secular and Islamic parties are involved in multiparty democracy in Turkey.
The soviet bloc was captured by the democratic current, with democratic systems winning out in most of east central Europe and Russia.