The political crisis in Virginia was caused by the sudden and unpredictable violence of the Susquehannock War.
colonists fled from the vulnerable frontiers, flooding into coastal communities and begging the government for help.
Sir William Berkeley did not send an army after the Susquehannock.
He worried that a full-scale war would drag other Indians into the conflict and turn allies into enemies.
Berkeley insisted on a defensive strategy that included a string of new fortifications to protect the frontier and instructions not to antagonize friendly Indians.
It was a public relations disaster.
Berkeley was condemned by terrified colonists.
Berkeley's wealthy friends decided that their own plantations were the most important.
Colonists accused the government of being more interested in lining their pockets than protecting the people.
In the spring of 1676, a small group of frontier colonists took matters into their own hands.
These self-styled "volunteers" proclaimed that they took up arms in defense of their homes and families after naming the charismatic young Nathaniel Bacon as their leader.
Berkeley feared a coup and branded the volunteers as traitors, but they took pains to assure them that they intended no disloyalty.
Berkeley was able to crush the colonists' rebellion.
His response catapulted a small group of anti- Indians into rebels who were able to bring down the government.
As well as friendly Indians like the Pamunkeys and the Occaneechi, bacon and the rebels hunted the Susquehannock.
The rebels believed there was a plan to destroy the English.
In the summer of 1676, Bacon's neighbors elected him their burgess and sent him to confront Berkeley.
The House of Burgesses enacted pro-rebel reforms such as prohibiting the sale of arms to Indians and restoring speach rights to landless freemen.
The rebel leader was forced to beg forgiveness for his actions after Berkeley arrested him.
The State House was surrounded by an army of followers who demanded that Berkeley name him the general of Virginia and bless his universal war against Indians.
Instead, the seventy-year-old governor stepped onto the field in front of the crowd of angry men, unafraid, and called the man a traitor to his face.
If he was so intent on overthrowing his government, he tore open his shirt and dared him to shoot him.
Berkeley drew his sword and challenged the young man to a duel, knowing that he could neither back down from a challenge nor kill him without making himself into a villain.
Instead, he used bluster.
He cursed and threatened to slaughter the entire assembly if necessary.
24 Berkeley was defiant, but the cowed burgesses finally prevailed upon him to grant the request.
Virginia had a general, and bacon had a war.
The Rebellion spiraled out of control after this dramatic confrontation.
Berkeley was able to rebuild his army because he diverted his attention to the coasts and away from the Indians.
The rebels were more interested in defending their homes and families than in fighting other Englishmen, and they deserted in droves at every rumor of Indian activity.
The "rebellion" was more of a collection of local grievances and personal rivalries than a military campaign.
Both rebels and loyalists were interested in plunder, seizing their rivals' estates and confiscating their property.
White servants and black slaves fought side by side in both armies after being promised freedom for military service.
Everyone accused everyone else of treason, rebels and loyalists switched sides depending on which side was winning, and the whole Chesapeake disintegrated into a confused melee of secret plots and grandiose crusades, sordid vendettas and desperate gambits, with Indians and English alike struggling for supremacy and survival.
One Virginian said the rebellion was their time of anarchy.
The rebels suffered a crushing loss of ground.
His successors surrendered to Berkeley in January 1677.
Berkeley tried and executed the rebel leadership.
The royal fleet arrived carrying over one thousand red-coated troops and a royal commission of investigation charged with restoring order to the colony.
Berkeley died in disgrace after being dispatched to London by the commissioners.
The main tenance of order remained precarious for years after the conclusion of the Rebellion.
The garrison of royal troops discouraged Indians from entering and allowed the king to make money from tobacco.
The end of armed resistance did not mean a resolution to the underlying tensions.
Outside of Virginia, Indians remained a terrifying threat.
The planters exploited their indentured servants and marginalized small farmers.
Virginians continued to resent their exploitation.
In the years after the rebellion, the social and political conditions of poor white Virginians improved, as legislators recognized the extent of popular hostility toward colonial rule.
Increased availability of enslaved workers through the Atlantic slave trade contributed to planters' large-scale adoption of slave labor.
The Spanish experienced tumult in the area of contemporary New Mexico a few years after the Rebellion.
The Spanish suppressed Native American beliefs in order to maintain control.
Native idols and masks were burned and traditional spiritual practices were banned by the friar.
Between 1000 and 1000, the Spanish Built and Santa Fe were besieged by several thousand Puebloan warriors.
Four hundred were killed, including the twenty-one Franciscan priests, and two thousand were allowed to flee.
It was the greatest act of New Mex Indian resistance in North American history.
Pope pro Revolt said that the God of the Christians is dead.
The Spanish were exiled for twelve years because of their spiritual practices.
They returned in 1692.
Cre is going toconquer New Mexico.
There was a lot of violence and turmoil in the late 17th century.
King Philip's War shattered Indian resistance in New England, and the Rebellion turned white Virginians against one another.
It would take several more decades before similar patterns erupted in Carolina and Pennsylvania, but the constant advance of European settlements provoked conflict in these areas as well.
The Yamasee, Carolina's closest allies and most lucrative partners, turned against the colony in 1715 and almost destroyed it.
The Yamasee would eventually reach Charles Town.
The Yamasee War's first victims were traders.
Two of the colony's most prominent men were patched up by the governor after rumors of native unrest.
The Yamasee killed the emissaries and every English trader they could corral.
The Yamasee, like many other Indians, had come to depend on the courts as much as the flintlock rifles and bullets that traders offered them for slaves and animal skins.
Feuds between English agents in India caused the court of trade to shut down and led to the Yamasee reprisal.
Most Indian villages in the southeast sent warriors to join the cause against the colony.