The effects of cognitive processes such as thought, perception, and expectations were underestimated in the dismissal of "mentalistic" concepts such as consciousness.
The early behaviorists believed that rats and dogs' learned behaviors could be reduced to mindless mechanisms.
If a shock is preceded by a tone and then a light accompanies it, a rat will react with fear, but not to the light.
The tone is a better predictor than the light because it adds no new information.
The stronger the conditioned response, the more predictable the association is.
Associations can affect attitudes.
Researchers have conditioned adults' attitudes using Pokemon characters.
The participants were told to press a button whenever a Pokemon character appeared on a video screen that displayed a stream of words and images.
They looked at the extra Pokemon characters.
The participants preferred the characters associated with the positive stimuli.
Studies show that conditioned likes and dislikes are even stronger when people notice the associations they have learned.
Experiments help explain why classical conditioning treatments don't always work.
People receiving therapy for alcohol use disorder may be given alcohol spiked with a nauseating drug.
If classical conditioning were just a matter of "stamping in" associations, we might hope so.
The association between drinking alcohol and feeling sick is weakened by one's awareness that the nausea is caused by the drug, not the alcohol.
Even in classical conditioning, it's not just the association with the US, but also the thought that counts.
The existence of private thought processes was acknowledged by B. F. Skinner.
He was criticized by many psychologists for discounting the importance of cognitive functions.
Skinner spoke at the American Psychological Association convention before he died of leukemia.
He resisted the growing belief that cognitive processes have a place in the science of psychology and even in our understanding of conditioning.
He thought "cognitive science" was a return to the early twentieth-century introspectionism.
Skinner believed that thoughts and emotions were the same as other behaviors.
The evidence of cognitive processes cannot be ignored.
The animals behave as if repeating the response will produce the reward, even though a strict behaviorist would object to that.
Studies of rats in mazes show evidence of cognitive processes.
Rats exploring a maze seem to have a mental representation of the maze.
When an experimenter puts food in the maze's goal box, the rats run it as fast as they can.
Rats seem to experience the same things as people do in a new town.
When there was an incentive to demonstrate it, that learning became apparent.
Children can learn from watching a parent, but only as needed.
Rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map after exploring a maze.
There is more to learning than thinking about something.
Evidence of animals' cognitive abilities will be shown in Chapter 9.
Rewarding people for a task they already enjoy can backfire.
The desire to perform a behavior effectively can be destroyed by excessive rewards.
Children are promised a payoff for playing with toys in experiments.
Children who are given toys or candy for reading spend less time reading.
Youth sports coaches who aim to promote enduring interest in an activity, not just to pressure players into winning, focus on the intrinsic joys of playing and reaching one's potential Doing so could lead to more rewards.
Students who focus on learning get good grades.
Doctors who focus on healing may make a good living.
According to research, people who focus on their work's meaning and significance do better work and earn more rewards.
Like people, animals can learn from experience.
Rats in one group explored a maze many times, always with a food reward at the end.
Rats in a maze with no reward.
The rats in the second group ran the maze as fast as the rats in the first group after they got a food reward.
Constructive rewards can be used to signal a job well done, instead of being used to bribe or control someone.
The "most improved player" awards can boost feelings of competence and increase enjoyment of a sport.
Administered correctly, rewards can improve performance and spark creativity.
The rewards of academic achievement, such as scholarships and jobs, are here to stay.
The biological and cognitive influences on classical and operant conditioning are compared in table 7.5.
Operant conditioning is affected by biological and cognitive factors.
Higher animals, especially humans, learn without direct experience by watching and imitating others.
A child learns not to touch a hot stove after seeing his sister burn her fingers.
Albert Bandura, the pioneer of observational learning, had an experiment in which a preschool child worked on a drawing.
An adult builds with toys in a room.
As the child watches, the adult gets up, kicks, and throws a large inflated Bobo doll around the room, yelling "Sock him in the nose."
The child is taken to another room filled with toys.
She took the child to a third room with a few toys, including a Bobo doll.
Compared with children not exposed to the adult model, those who viewed the model's actions were more likely to hit the doll.
Their inhibitions were lowered by observing the aggressive outburst.
The children's actions mimic the adult's.
The Video: Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment has 3 minutes of classic footage.
We are more likely to learn from people we think are similar to ourselves, as successful or admirable.
We experience someone's outcomes when we identify with them.
As we observe another safely navigating the feared situation, our fears may be put to rest.
Bandura's work shows how basic research can have a broader purpose.
Insights from his research have been used to restrain televised violence and to offer social models that have helped reduce the incidence of AIDS.
In 1991, on a hot summer day in Parma, Italy, a lab monkey waited for its researchers to come back from lunch.
The researchers implanted wires next to the monkey's motor cortex in order to help it plan and act.
The researchers would be alert to the activity in that part of the monkey's brain.
The device buzzed when the monkey moved a peanut into its mouth.
The monkey stared at the researcher as he reentered the lab with the ice cream cone.
The monkey's monitor buzzed when the researcher raised the cone to lick it.
The same buzzing had been heard earlier, when the monkey was watching humans or other monkeys.
The researchers, led by Giacomo Rizzolatti, believed in observational learning.
These neurons fire when a monkey grasps, holds, or tears something.
When a monkey observes another doing the same, they fire.
One monkey's neurons mirror another monkey's.
imitation and empathy may be enabled by the brain's mirror of another's action.
In other species, imitation is common.
Chimpanzees observe and imitate all sorts of novel behaviors, which are then transmitted from generation to generation within their local culture.
A single whale whacked the water in 1980 to drive prey fish into a clump.
Humpback whales have spread whaling through social learning.
The monkeys learn to prefer corn that is different colors.
Vervet monkeys are trained to prefer either blue or pink corn by soaking one color in a disgusting-tasting solution.
After a new generation of monkeys was born, the adults stuck with whatever color they had learned to like, and all but one of the 27 infant monkeys were kept out of sight.
When blue- (or pink-) preferring males migrated to the other group, they switched preferences and began eating as the other group did.
Monkey see, monkey do.
In humans, imitation is common.
Our culture is spread by one person copying another.
Babies and children are natural imitators.
Babies imitate novel gestures by 8 to 16 months.
They look at where an adult is looking by 12 months.
Children imitate acts on TV by 14 months.
Young humans surpass Chimpanzees at social tasks such as imitating another's solution to a problem when they are near adult Chimpanzees.
An adult looks left as a 12-month-old infant follows her gaze.
"This instinct to humiliate, when it's modeled by someone in the public platform, by someone powerful, it filters down into everybody's life."
Living in urban Australia or rural Africa, they copy adult actions.
If they see a feather in the jar, they will stroke it with a feather before reaching for a toy.
They will wave a stick over a box and then use the stick to push on a knob that opens the box, when all they needed to do was to push on the knob.
Humans and monkeys have similar brains.
fMRI scans can be used by researchers to see brain activity associated with performing and observing actions.
The issue is being debated.
Our brain's response to others makes us feel good.
Our brain experiences what we see.
These mental instant replays are so real that we may misremember an action we have performed.
Through these reenactments, we understand others' thoughts.
We unconsciously mirror our own postures, faces, voices, and writing styles to help us feel what they are feeling.
We gain friends by imitating those we like.
Our faces mirror each other's emotion when we see a loved one's pain.
Our brains do the same as shows.
The brain activity experienced by the loved one actually having the pain has been triggered by the pain imagined by the romantic partner.
Even fiction reading can cause such activity as we mentally mimic the experiences described.
University students read a fictional fellow student's description of overcoming obstacles to vote.
People who read the first-person account were more likely to vote in a presidential primary election.
Brain activity related to pain is mirrored in the brain of a loved one.
The somatosensory cortex, which receives the physical pain input, does not show up in the emotional brain areas.
Bandura's studies show that we look, we mentally imitate, and we learn.
It is possible that models in our family, our neighborhood, or the media have effects.
People's modeling can have prosocial effects.
When they are able to observe the skills being modeled effectively by experienced workers, they gain these skills faster.
People who help others can also help themselves.
People become more helpful when they help someone who dropped a dollar.
India's Mahatma Gandhi and America's Martin Luther King, Jr. drew on the power of modeling to make non-violent action a powerful force for social change in both countries.
One research team found that viewing prosocial TV, movies, and video games boosted later helping behavior in seven countries.
The girl is learning orphan-nursing skills and compassion while observing her mentor in the Humane Society program.
Powerful models are also parents.
European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis usually had a close relationship with at least one parent who modeled a strong moral or humanitarian concern; this was also true for U.S. civil rights activists in the 1960s.
Early on, the observational learning of morality begins.
Socially responsive toddlers who imitate their parents are more likely to become preschoolers with a strong conscience.
The actions and words of models are the most effective.
To encourage children to read, surround them with books and people who read.
To increase the chance that your children will attend religious activities with you.
Sometimes models say one thing and do another.
Experiments show that children learn to do both.
They imitate the hypocrisy by doing what the model did and saying what the model said.
Children who experience physical punishment are more aggressive.
His parents and friends all drive over the speed limit, but they advise him not to.
Juan's parents and friends don't say anything to stop him from speeding.
It's possible that he may be more likely to speed.
Observational learning studies show that children do the same things as others.
This helps us understand why abusive parents might have aggressive children, why children who are lied to become more likely to cheat and lie, and why many men who beat their wives had wifebattering fathers.
Critics think that aggressiveness could be genetic.
It can be environmental with monkeys.
Young monkeys separated from their mothers and subjected to high levels of aggression grew up to be aggressive themselves.
Lessons we learn as children are not easy to replace as adults, and they are sometimes visited on future generations.
The average American family doesn't have time for television because people must sit and keep their eyes fixated on a screen.
The showmen believe that.
Observational learning can be found in TV shows, movies and online videos.
Children may learn that free and easy sex brings pleasure without later misery or disease, or that men should be tough and women gentle, while watching.
They have plenty of time to learn.
Children in developed countries spend more time watching TV than they do in school.
The greatest effect of screen time may be what it displaces.
Children and adults who spend a lot of time in front of a screen spend less time in other activities.
A peculiar storyteller is teaching viewers about life, one that reflects the culture's mythology rather than its reality.
Between 1998 and 2006 there was a 75 percent increase in violence on TV.
An analysis of more than 3000 network and cable programs aired during one year showed that nearly 6 in 10 featured violence, that 74 percent of the violence went unpunished, that 58 percent did not show the victims' pain, and that half the incidents involved "justified" violence.
In 2012 a well-armed man targeted young children and their teachers in a horrifying mass shooting at Connecticut's Sandy Hook Elementary School.
Thirty seconds is all it takes for a soap bar to sell soap.
Hundreds of investigators have worked on learning principles.
The ideas of a few pioneers were the focus of this chapter.
They show how devotion to a few well-defined problems and ideas can have an impact.
The researchers were impressed with the importance of learning.
Intellectual history is often made by people who risk going to extremes in pushing ideas to their limits.
The examples should be matched to the appropriate underlying learning principle.
Classical conditioning is a type of operant conditioning.
Knowing the way from the bed to the bathroom in the dark is important.
You smell brownies in the oven.
You can check your answer by clicking on the e-book and Appendix C of the printed text.
According to research, trying to answer these questions on your own will improve retention.
The studies show that conditioning can occur even when the US does not follow the neutral stimuli.
Some animals have aversions to certain tastes but not to sights or sounds.
Evidence that cognitive processes play an important role in learning comes from studies in which rats run a maze.
Rats that explored a maze without a reward were later able to run the maze as well as other rats that had received food rewards.
The rats that did not receive reinforcement demonstrated.
Children imitate their parents and other models.
This is a type of learning.
According to Bandura, we learn from watching models.
Parents are the most effective at getting their children to imitate them.
Some scientists think that the brain has neurons that allow for imitation.
Most experts agree that watching violence in the media makes viewers more aggressive.
You can find answers in the e-book and at the back of the printed text.
Our memories account for time and define our life.
Our memory allows us to recognize family, speak our language, and find our way home.
Our memory allows us to enjoy an experience and then replay it again.
Our memories allow us to build histories with those we love.
Our memory sometimes pits us against people we can't forget.
Our shared memories help bind us together.
We are what we remember.
Without memory, we wouldn't be able to relive past joys, guilt or anger.
Each moment fresh, we would live in an enduring present.
Every task would be a new challenge for each person.
You wouldn't be familiar with yourself, because you wouldn't have a constant sense of self that goes back to your distant past.
Researchers look at memory from many different perspectives.
We will begin by looking at how memories are stored and retrieved.
We'll look at ways to improve memory after that.
Over time, memory is learning that can be retrieved.
Understanding how memory works has been aided by research on memory's extremes.
My father had a small stroke at the age of 92.
His personality was still pleasant.
He liked reminiscing about his past and poring over family photo albums.
He had lost most of his ability to remember conversations.
He didn't know what day of the week it was or what he had eaten for lunch.
He was surprised and sad when he heard about his brother-in-law's death.