The last decades of the 18th century were marked by revolutions.
As trade goods, individuals, and ideas spread across the Atlantic Ocean, debates and events in one locale influenced those in another.
Enlightenment ideals of freedom and equality flourished, inspiring reformers in many places to demand an end to the old ways.
European governments are vulnerable to calls for reform because they have a copy of the Declaration of the Rights of debt.
The revolutionary era began in North America.
A pike was used to defend them.
The painting hung in France became the leading revolutionary nation.
After establishing a Jacobin club, it fell from constitutional monarchy to a radical republic and finally an empire power.
French armies exported revolution throughout much of Europe during this period of constant domestic turmoil.
The slaves in the French colony of Saint-Domingue were inspired by revolutionary ideals and internal colonial conditions.
The creation of the independent nation of Haiti was a result of their rebellion.
The relationship between Europe and its colonies was fundamentally altered by this wave of revolution.
The world of modern politics was born in Europe and its colonies abroad.
The revolutions in the Atlantic world were caused by factors.
The stage for reform was set by certain factors.
As political crises eroded state authority, there were fundamental social and economic changes.
The impact of political ideas derived from the Enlight enment was a significant cause of revolutionary fervor.
Financial crises caused by war expenses crippled European states and allowed abstract discussions of reform to become reality.
The nobility, the clergy, and groups with special burdens, such as the peasantry, were part of the legal society of the 18th century.
The right to hunt game and bear swords was one of the exclusive rights granted to nobles in France.
Middle class groups such as professionals, merchants, and guild masters were given privileges that allowed them to dominate economic activity.
Traditional privileges were retained under dramatic and destabilizing change.
Europe's population rose rapidly after 1750 due to in creased agricultural production.
It is more difficult for urban people to find enough food and living space due to inflation.
New inequali ties between rich and poor were created by the growth of the economy.
The poor struggled with rising prices, but investors in overseas trade and rural manufacturing made a lot of money.
As middle-class bureaucrats and merchants bought landed estates and noble titles, the old distinctions between landed aristocracy and city merchants began to fade.
Ancient privileges seemed unjust and inappropriate in the context of these changes.
The clergy, nobility, and everyone else were divided into estates.
"Let's hope this game ends soon" is a program of reform that any peasant could understand.
Chapter Chronology was tablished in European colonies to enable and protect slav ery.
The methods used to enforce it in France were very brutal.
Revolutions in the Atlantic world were fueled by the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The first call for individual human rights was made in the 18th century.
In the early 19th century, supporters of the cause of individual liberty demanded freedom of worship, an end to censorship, and freedom from arbitrary laws from judges who obeyed orders from the government.
This was a radical idea because of the forms of government then dominating Europe.
A new kind of government was also called for by the call for liberty.
Reformers believed that the people had the authority to make laws limiting an individual's freedom of action.
Legislators were supposed to represent the people and be accountable to them.
The rule of the Mon archs should be constrained by the will of the people.
The idea of equality was not clear.
In the 18th century, liberals argued that the nobility had no right to special privileges based on birth and that all citizens should have the same rights and liberties.
They accepted a number of distinctions.
Most eighteenth-century liberals believed that equality between men and women was not desirable.
The inequality between blacks and whites was not questioned.
liberals never believed that everyone should be economical.
It was perfectly acceptable for wealth and income to be different between rich and poor as long as every free white male had an equal chance at economic gain.
These demands for liberty and equality were revolutionary, given that a privileged elite had been around for a long time.