8 -- Part 5: Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia
Early Christians devoted their energy to their new spiritual family because they believed that the second coming of Christ was imminent.
They used family terms that were new to the Roman Empire when they met in people's homes and called one another brother and sister.
Christianity was seen as dangerous by many Romans because it led some young people to avoid marriage, which was seen as the foundation of society and a necessity for maintaining the power of the pater familias.
Christian teachings did not represent a break from Roman tradition.
Church leaders began to place restrictions on female believers in the first century.
Women were not allowed to hold official positions in Christianity other than in women's monasteries, and Paul forbade women to preach.
Christianity modeled its official hierarchy after that of the Roman Empire, just as it limited the activities of female believers.
Classical models were challenged by Christian teachings about sexuality.
The church's unfavorable view of sexual activity involved an endorsement of the importance of a spiritual life, but it also incorporated hostility toward the body found in some Hellenistic philosophies.
The thought was that the mind was superior to the body.
Women are seen as evil in some of the writings of church fathers.
Same-sex relations were evil in the eyes of church fathers.
Saint Augustine of Hippo, the most influential church father in the West, had a strong role in shaping Christian views about sexual ac tivity and many other issues.
There is an urban family in Al geria in North Africa.
His parents were both Christians and his father was a pagan.
He became bishop of the city of Hippo Regius after converting to his mother's religion.
As a preacher, a vigorous defender of orthodox Christianity, and the author of more than ninety-three books, Augustine gained renown.
Knowledge and virtue are the same as a person who knows what is right.
He argued that people don't always act on the basis of rational knowledge.
The basic force in any individual is the wil.
The original sin was committed when Adam ate the fruit that was forbidden by God.
Adam's sin was passed on to other humans through sexual intercourse.
Sex was seen as the result of disobedience by Adam and Eve, which was more clearly linked to sin than had church fathers.
Human beings have an innate tendency to sin because they disobey God.
The church was believed to act as a conduit of dation of all subsequent Western Christian theology, Protestant as well as Catholic.
Christians sought to make their faith catholic, because Christ said that his teaching was for everyone.
Christianity spread to the cities of the Byzantine Empire through the Mediterranean.
The borders of the empire were taken over by missionaries who took Christian teachings to the countryside.
Because the religion of a region's leader determines the religion of the people, missionaries concentrated their initial efforts on these people.
The first converts in an area were often members of the royal family.
The conversion of Ireland to Saint Patrick is identified by tradition.
Patrick studied in Gaul after a vision told him to Christianize Ireland.
He converted the Irish tribe by tribe, firstbaptizing the king.
Pope Gregory I sent a group of monks to England in 597.
Christianity spread throughout the Roman world from the area near Jerusalem.
Most of the people living on the European continent and the nearby islands received Christianity in the tenth century.
Missionaries traveled far beyond the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire.
Methodius and Cyril were sent by the emperor Michael III to preach Christianity in Moravia.
The Russians were converted in the tenth century.
The "Cyril ic alphabet" was invented by Cyril, a Byzantine influence on Russia.
The birth of Russian literature was possible because of this.
Byzantine art and architecture became the basis of and inspi ration for Russian forms, particularly in the creation of religious icons.
The work of Christianization began when the ruler marched his people to the water.
Christian kings could order their subjects to be married and buried in Christian ceremonies.
Many of the Christian beliefs that the church could not force people to accept, such as "love your enemies," seemed strange or radical.
They did it through preaching, assimilation, and the ritual of penance.
Preaching was meant to show the basic teachings of Christianity and strengthen the newly christened in their faith through stories about the lives of Christ and the saints.
Words alone could not stamp out deeply ingrained pagan customs and practices.
Christian missionaries often tried to ease the conversion of pagan men and women by emphasizing similarities between their customs and beliefs and those of Christianity.
In the same way that classically trained scholars blended Greco-Roman and Christian ideas, missionaries and converts mixed barbarian pagan ideas and practices with Christian ones.