The Communist world was split by Khrushchev cutting off aid.
Industrial growth in China was to be based on small-scale backyard workshops run by peasants in huge self-contained villages.
After the Great Leap forward fiasco and the Sino-Soviet split, Mao lost influence in the party, but in 1965, he staged a dramatic comeback, launching the He sought to purge the party and to regain the revolutionary fervor of the guerrilla struggle.
The army and the nation's young people organized themselves into Red Guards.
Students practiced rebellion in the name of revolution.
The movement was launched in 1965, by Mao, in an attempt to regain the revolutionary fervor of his guerrilla struggle.
All traces of feminism andbourgeois culture were erased by the Red Guards.
Many works of art, antiques, and books were destroyed.
Party officials, professors, and intellectuals were exiled to remote villages to purify themselves.
For a long time, universities were shut down.
Millions of people were sent to rural forced labor camps.
The Red Guards were a model for student rebellions in the West in the late 1960s.
Millions of copies of poster art were printed to adorn the walls of homes, offices, factories, and businesses in Communist China.
Classical Chinese art styles were not reflected in this uniquely Chinese form.
The state, its leaders, and the heroes of the revolution are depicted in these posters.
The five components of Communist society are the youth, the army, the peasants, the workers, and the intellectuals.
This poster was part of a campaign by the People's Liberation Army.
The campaign celebrated the virtues of sacrifice, modesty, and dedication to the Communist Party of China, and featured an ordinary soldier named Lei Feng.
There is a poster behind a woman on the phone.
The campaign modeled behaviors for the public to follow by emphasizing the virtues of ordinary people.
In this poster of a family, the presence of a poster about Lei Feng was meant to show how these messages are brought into the family's home.
There are images of order and prosperity in family life in the main poster.
Consider the people in the poster.
After 1945, Korea was divided into Soviet and American zones of occupation, which became Communist North Korea and anticommunist South Korea.
Many Americans were scared when the Communists took control of China in 1949.
When the Russian-backed Communist forces of North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, President Truman sent U.S. troops to lead a UN coalition force to stop them.
The Korean War ended with little more than symbolic gains for either side.
South Korean, American, and UN troops repelled their foes north to the Chinese border after North Korea conquered most of the peninsula.
The South Koreans and Americans were pushed back by China.
The fighting stopped after a fragile truce was negotiated.
The policy of containing communism to Asia was extended by the United States, but it retreated from invading China and possibly provoking a nuclear war.
In the Tokyo-Yokohama area after Japan's surrender in August 1945, American occupation forces found only smokestacks and large steel safes, which had been the heart of industrial Japan.
Germany and Japan were both formally occupied by the Allies, but real power resided in American hands.
It was almost absolute authority that MacArthur exercised.
The Americans had a plan to make Japan a free, democratic society along the lines of the US.
Japan's sweeping American revolution began with demilitarization and a purge of war criminals.
The Japanese Diet had members who were elected.
All political prisoners, including Communists, were freed as a result of a bill of rights.
The Japanese armed forces were abolished in the new constitution.
Japan's powerful bureaucracy was largely undamaged by the American occupation and used to implement fundamental social and economic reforms.
The Japanese labor movement was promoted, American-style antitrust laws were introduced, and Japanese women were granted equality before the law.
The small independent farmers became steadfast defenders of postwar democracy because of the land reform imposed by the occupation.
Baseball increased in popularity during the U.S. occupation.
America's attempts to remake Japan in its own image were short-lived.
As Mao's forces prevailed in China, American leaders began to see Japan as a potential ally.
The American command began to rehabilitate prewar nationalists.
The Japanese prime minister during the early post-occupation period was Shigeru Yoshida.
The ideal leader for postwar Japan was a former diplomat named Yoshida.
He used all available resources to rebuild Japan's industrial infrastructure, while leaving the military defense of the country to the American forces.
The occupation ended in 1952 with the signing of a treaty that restored Japan's independence and helped the United States contain communism.
The French fought for independence in Southeast Asia.
After the Communist and nationalist guerrilla leader Ho Chi Minh declared an independent republic in 1945, France tried to return to imperial rule.
French forces were defeated in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.
French Indochina gained independence at an international peace conference.
Vietnam was temporarily divided into northern and southern regions pending elections to select a single unified government within two years.
The civil war between the Communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam, or North Vietnam, and the South Vietnamese government broke out in 1959 after the South Vietnamese government refused to hold the elections.
Cold war fears and U.S. commitment to the ideology of containment drove the United States to get involved in Vietnam.
The administration of President Eisenhower refused to sign the accords that divided the country and provided military aid to help the south resist North Vietnam.
Lyndon Johnson greatly expanded America's role in the Vietnam conflict in order to break the will of the North Vietnamese and their southern allies without resorting to "overkill."
Large numbers of American forces joined in combat in South Vietnam.
The United States bombed North Vietnam but did not launch a naval blockade of its ports.
A growing antiwar movement on U.S. college campuses was spurred by watching the results of the war on television and the widening military draft, but most Americans first saw the war as a legitimate defense against communism.
Critics in the U.S. and around the world denounced American involvement in the conflict by the late 1960s.
The Americans' confidence in the government's ability to manage the conflict was shattered by the north's Tet offensive.
President Johnson said he wouldn't be re-elected and President Nixon wanted to disengage America from Vietnam.
The American forces in Vietnam were cut from 550,000 to 24,000 in four years as a result of the Vietnamization process.
Nixon reached a peace agreement with North Vietnam in 1973, which allowed the remaining American forces to withdraw by 1975.
The Communists created a unified Marxist Vietnam despite U.S. efforts.
The Communists turned to a nation-building process that had been delayed by decades of war against colonial rule and the U.S. effort to force a political and economic model on the country as part of its doctrine of containment of communism.
Millions of Vietnamese civilians faced reprisals for aligning with the United States.
The war between North and South Vietnam was a global struggle.
The Vietnam War began after the fight for independence from France.
The United States, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand fought against North Vietnam, which received aid from China and the Soviet Union.
Antiwar movements around the world melded with other struggles against imperialism or racism, or for the rights of women and minorities, as a result of the conflict.
In 1945, after decades of French colonialism and Japanese occupation, Ho, a Marxist revolutionary and North Vietnam's prime minister, read Vietnam's Declaration of Independence to a Hanoi audience.
Ho places the independence of Vietnam in the context of a global history of self-determination of peoples.
All men are created equal.
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness are some of the inalienable rights that they have.
The Declaration of Independence of the United States of America was written in 1776.
All of the peoples on the earth have a right to live, to be happy and free, in a broader sense.
Those are true.
The French imperialists have violated the standard of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity for more than eighty years.
People who have fought side by side with the Allies against the Fascists must be free and independent.
In Tokyo, members of the Anti-Imperial Student Council participated in an anti-Vietnam War demonstration in which they combined protests against the U.S. role in Vietnam, opposition to the U.S. Security Treaty, and demands for university reforms.
The deployment of the U.S. was brought about by President Lyndon Johnson's request to Congress.
The deployment of over five hundred thousand troops was not enough for the United States to win the war.
The policy in southeast Asia has remained the same since 1954.
We must and will honor our commitments here.
The future of southeast Asia as a whole is the issue.
A threat to any nation in that region is a threat to all.
Our purpose is peace.
There are no military, political, or territorial ambitions in the area.
The agreement that granted military bases to the United States and the profits Japanese companies made from supplying the U.S. armed forces were questioned by the opposition to the war.
The leader of the antiwar movement draws connections between the war and Japanese society.
We are all guilty of being involved in the Vietnam War.
Each of us is a part of the perpetrators.
We must conduct our opposition movement all the more forcefully because of this.
If we don't take a clear stance against the war and seek peace here and now, it will be ours one day.
We might have to fire the bullet on orders from the state if we don't nail down our basic principles as individuals.
The movement for women's rights, as well as the African American, American Indian, and Latino civil rights movements, are related to the antiwar movement in the United States.
Several antiwar groups formed by women, whose activism extended from opposition to the war to support for women's rights, were brought together by the Jeannette Rankin brigade.
The brigade took the name of the first woman elected to Congress in 1916.
A woman is holding a banner in the center.
In addition to what you have learned in class and in this chapter, write a short essay on how Ho Chi Minh's arguments for independence from France and Lyndon Johnson's rationale for military intervention in Vietnam relate to opposition to Japan's support for U.S. military.
Most of Africa gained independence by 1964.
Portugal's colonies and southern Africa gained independence after a long armed struggle ended in 1975.
Many national leaders believed socialism to be the best way to end exploitation within their new borders.
These efforts were hampered by institutional barriers left over from the colonial era, such as the economic systems that privileged the export of commodities, and the educational systems that were intended to build servants of empire.
Efforts by former colonizers to retain their economic influence and the political and ideological divisions of the Cold War narrowed the range of actions available to new leaders.
The majority of African territories achieved statehood by the mid-1960s.
There were important differences between African nationalism and similar movements in Asia and the Middle East.
The development of political as distinct from cultural nationalism was complicated by Africa's multiplicity of ethnic groups and colonial boundaries that often bore no resemblance to existing ethnic geography.
After 1945, the questions were fully addressed.
The United States and the Caribbean were the first to start a nationalist movement.
W. E. B. was the most well-known participant in black nationalism.
During the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, Du Bois organized a Pan-African congress in Paris, as well as a meeting of the NAACP in the United States.
Through a movement beginning in 1919, people sought black solidarity and envisioned a vast self-governing union of all African peoples.
Anticolonial nationalism swept educated Africans in French and British colonies in the 1920s.
The westernized African elite wanted better access to government jobs, selfgovernment, and an end to discrimination.
They said they had the right to speak for ordinary Africans and denounced government-supported chiefs for subordinating themselves to white colonial leaders.
The mass protests that accompanied the deprivations of the Great Depression fueled the new nationalism.
Cocoa was the main source of income for the British in the Gold Coast.
Cocoa farmers refused to sell their beans to the British firms that fixed prices as prices plummeted after 1929.
The cocoa holdups demonstrated the power of mass organization and protest.
Cocoa producers in Africa's Gold Coast refused to sell their beans to British firms and instead sold them directly to European and American chocolate manufacturers in the 1930s.
Changes began in the 1930s after the Second World War in Africa.
Many African soldiers who served in India were impressed by Indian nationalism.
As African mines and plantations strained to meet wartime demands, towns mushroomed into cities, which became centers of discontent and hardship.
Western imperialism changed as well.
The principle of self-government was supported by the postwar Labour government.
The key question for Great Britain's African colonies was self-government.
France and Britiain were not in a hurry.
A new type of African leader was emerging.
The spokesmen for modern African nationalism were successful.
The postwar African leaders formed an elite because of their advanced European or American education.
Compared to the interwar generation of educated Africans, they were more radical and humble.
They included former teachers, union leaders, government clerks, lawyers, and poets.
African nationalists pragmatically accepted colonial boundaries to avoid border disputes and achieve freedom as soon as possible.
Traditional rulers became the new leaders' worst political enemies when they lost power.
The new leaders supported mass political organizations that offset traditional authority by channeling postwar hope and discontent.
These organizations became political parties.
One of the most influential intellectual advocates of Pan-Africanism was Trinidadian historian Cyril Lionel Robert James.
He wanted to show his contemporary brethren that they had a proud tradition of resistance as they fought for decolonization in the twentieth century.
Since the Gold Coast gained independence in 1957, there have been some of the most far-ranging and politically intense years in history.
African state after African state has gained political independence in a tumultuous rush that was not foreseen by the early advocates of independence.
The British Government, along with the French and the Belgian, found that they could not rule despite their guns and planes.
The only way to restore order is by breaking the colonial mentality.
The African leader and his colleagues were accepted.
In African state after African state, with almost the rapidity with which independence was gained, military dictatorship has succeeded to power.
African nationalist leaders did not inherit states that were in any sense African.
The political power of the imperialist states in Africa was destroyed by the rise of militancy.
The late Frantz Fanon saw that the men who were western-educated and western-oriented had little that was nationalist or African to contribute to the establishment of a truly new and truly African order.
The summer has seen tremendous struggles by the Black mass.
The assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King was significant.
A cordon of troops was placed around the White House and government buildings in Washington.
The city of Washington, the capital of the United States, was abandoned to the embittered and insurgent Blacks.
The only legitimate answer is the retreat of the Black population.
The population is located in the heart of many of the most important cities in the United States.
The destruction of the United States if the Black population continues to resist racism will happen if the middle classes are sympathetic or neutral.
Permission was granted by PM Press, Inc.
The charismatic leader of this generation of African leaders was Nkrumah.
He was influenced by European socialists and Marcus Garvey while studying in the United States.
He entered politics after returning to the Gold Coast.
The Gold Coast became the first sub-Saharan state to emerge from colonial rule.
Building new nation-states, emerging from the structures of colonialism, and navigating the pressures of the Cold War were some of the challenges faced by the first prime minister of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah.
A guide was offered by the experiences of other societies that underwent revolution.
Nkrumah and Zhou Enlai traveled to China in 1961.
Modern groups such as veterans, merchant women, union members, and cocoa farmers were attracted to the radical party built by Nkrumah.
The Convention People's Party staged riots and strikes after rejecting halfway measures.
After he was arrested in 1950, the "Deliverer of Ghana" was released from jail and his party won the 1951 national elections.
By 1957, Prime Minister Nkrumah had achieved worldwide fame and influence.
The independence of other African colonies followed.
The main problem in some colonies was the permanent white settlers, not the colonial officials, as in Algeria, Kenya, and Rhodesia, they fought to preserve their privileged position.
In French-speaking Africa, decolonization took a different course.
The events in the French North African colony of Algeria in the 1950s and early 1960s helped clarify France's attitude towards its sub-Saharan African colonies.
The pieds-noirs (black feet) of Algeria are home to a large, mostly Catholic, European settlers who wore black shoes instead of sandals.
Over half a million people were killed in Algeria's war for independence in 1954.
The FLN created an independent Algeria state in 1962, causing an estimated 900,000 Europeans and indigenous Jews to flee.
The anticolonial movement in Algeria began a war against the French in 1954.
France's political stability was undermined by the war in Algeria.
It was difficult for France to respond to nationalists in its other African colonies until Charles de Gaulle returned to power.
De Gaulle created a divide and rule strategy to maximize France's influence over the future independent nations.
Each territory had to approve the new arrangement.
An affirmative vote meant continued ties with France, a negative vote meant immediate independence and a complete break with France.
It was a good gamble by De Gaulle.
They wanted French aid to continue.
After the Second World War, France gave the vote to the educated colonial elite and about forty Africans held French parliamentary seats.
The pursuit of independence by French African leaders was moderated by these factors.
Sekou Toure, a young nationalist, led his people to reject the new constitution.
"We have one prime and essential need: our dignity," Toure told de Gaulle.
There is no dignity without freedom.
We prefer freedom in poverty to wealth in slavery.
Weaker European nations such as Belgium and Portugal responded to decolonization in ways that were more destabilizing.
Portugal's dictatorship fought to keep its colonies.
The Portuguese regime intensified the suppression of nationalist groups.
In 1959 Belgium granted independence from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, leaving in place a weak government.
There was a violent ethnic conflict after independence.
The United States supported the dictatorship of Mobutu Sese Seko.
The wealth generated from mining went into the hands of foreign companies and Mobutu's family.
After the Second World War, Latin American nations struggled to find a political balance that integrated long-excluded groups.
Populist politicians supported the urban and rural poor.
They combined charisma with promises of social change to create more and better job opportunities.
The armed forces seized power in many cases because of the conservative reaction against populists.
The alternative path was carved by Castro.
Castro wanted a revolutionary transformation of Cuban society and went beyond the reforms advocated by the populists.
In the decades following the Mexican Revolution, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which dominated public life while adhering to the social goals demanded by the movements that fought in the revolution, especially the redistribution of land, emerged as a durable political and economic formula.
By the end of the Second World War, Mexico embraced economic nationalism, which was an effort to promote economic development through substitution of imports with domestic manufacturing and state control of key industries like the oil sector.
The Mexican government was controlled by a single party, rather than a single individual, as before the revolution.
The PRI had networks of patronage and control over elected office.
The party was an important link between business and labor.
This was a time when people left rural areas for jobs in factories or in lower-paying service jobs, such as maids and janitors.
Some of the economic change that Mexicans had experienced in the liberal era was softened by the embrace of economic nationalism.
The upper and middle classes were the main beneficiaries of the economic growth.
The Mexican government built a lot of buildings in the 1960s.
The Plaza of the Three Cultures contained ruins from the Aztec Empire, a colonial Spanish church, and a contemporary nation.
In Tlatelolco, government forces silenced political dissent in advance of the 1968 Olympics by opening fire on a student march.
The Aztec ruins and a Spanish church are behind modern apartment buildings.
Before the 1968 Summer Olympics in the city, Mexican authorities massacred student protesters at this plaza.
Argentina and Brazil's postwar economic development was shaped by populist politicians.
Millions of people gained the right to vote for the first time as universal suffrage spread through Latin America.
Universal male suffrage was achieved in Argentina in 1912 and Mexico in 1917.
In the early 20th century, women gained the right to vote in Latin America.
Voters still need to be literate to vote.
Argentina's economy prospered through its liberal export boom at the turn of the century, but industrialization stopped and the economy fell.
Juan Peron was elected president in 1946 with the support of Argentina's unions.
Eva, Juan Peron's wife, played a vital role in promoting Peron, even though he was charismatic.
Peron's plan to transform Argentina's economy was to purchase all the country's agricultural exports in order to negotiate higher prices for them abroad.
Peron would raise worker wages to encourage demand.
European agricultural production had not yet recovered from the war and Peron's scheme worked in the immediate postwar period.
Peron reduced government payments to farmers when commodity prices declined.
Argentina never returned to the high rates of economic growth it enjoyed at the beginning of the century.
Peron was blamed for hurting the economy for his own gain.
Argentina's economy had long been dependent on Britain, and as Britain's capacity to import declined, so did Argentina's fortunes.