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13 Answers and Explanations to the Chapter Review Questions

- If you want to add the vectors, draw the first and second one at the same time.

- The northeast direction of the vector eliminates (C) and (D).
- This makes sense.

- The magnitude will be doubled.

- doubling the magnitude of both components will have no effect on the direction of the vector.

- This is the same as (D).

- There is only one answer choice with components that satisfy this equation.

- This results in a direction being pointed out.

- Since magnitudes are positive, the result could not be zero if the two vectors were pointed in the same direction.
- The magnitude of the result would be obtained by subtracting the individual magnitudes of the two vectors.

- The only way to equal zero is if the two vectors have the same magnitude.
- The choice is correct.

- The northeast is 45o about the horizontal.

component will increase

- Since the ant was 30 cm north of his original position, he can walk another 69.3 cm.

- The final position is the same as the initial position if you travel around a circular path.
- The displacement is zero.

- It is important to remember that velocity has direction and magnitude.

- The direction of the object's travel is always changing.

- There is an acceleration that is delivered on the object because the velocity is changing.

- Section 1 has a constant positive speed.
- Section 2 shows an object moving in a positive direction.
- Section 3 shows an object speeding up.

- The slope is positive and indicates that the direction of acceleration is opposite to the direction of velocity.
- The section is still in the negative, but the speed is slower.

- The constant direction of the projectile is due to gravity, but it does not point in the same direction.
- Zero acceleration means no change in speed or direction.
- An object whose speed is constant but whose direction of travel is changing is speeding.

- Earth's gravity still has an effect on the baseball.

- It's irrelevant if it's 10 m/s.

- The time required for the ball to reach the top of its trajectory is known as the time required for the vertical velocity to drop to zero.

- 40 m/s is 10 m/s.
- 40 m/s is 4.
- The speed of the horizontal does not change.
- When the rock hits the water, it has a horizontal component of 30 m/s and a vertical component of 40 m/s.

- The vertical speed decreases when the projectile rises and increases when it falls because of the downward acceleration of the projectile.
- Choices A, B, and C are all false.

- The stone is traveling downward because we called up the positive direction.

- The variables involved in the question are the initial velocity, the final velocity, and the skidding distance.

- The final position increases when the initial velocity is doubled.

- 10 m/s is 20 m/s.
- The two average speeds are the same.

- -5 m/s2 is the average of 10 m/s and 20 s.

- The object stopped at five seconds.

- If you want the cannonball to hit the wall rather than flying over it, you need to make sure its height is less than 30 m.

- As desired, this is less than 30 m.

- The cannonball's flight time is 5 seconds.

- The velocity time graph is a linear line with a negative slope since gravity points downwards.
- The cannonball's vertical velocity decreases by 10 m/s every second if the gravity is 10 m/s2.
- After 2 s, the vertical velocity of the projectile is 0 m/s.

- The projectile's vertical velocity is -30 m/s after 5 s. The vertical velocity can be visualized.

- The problem asks for a graph of the vertical speed.

- The net force he feels must be zero because the person is not speeding.
- The downward force from the floor must be balanced by the upward force from the floor.
- The two forces do not form an action/reaction pair because they both act on the same person.
- The forces in an action pair act on different objects.
- The Earth's pull on the person and the person's pull on the Earth are the correct action-reaction pair.

- 800 N + 10 m/s2 equals 1,200 N.

- Constant speed with no change in direction is not acceleration.
- Therefore, (B) and (C) are false, and (A) is not necessarily true.

- The horizontal motion across the tables is unaffected.
- It would take more force to accelerate the block across the table on Earth than it would on the Moon.

- Since the force applied to the crate is less than 400 N, static friction is able to apply that same magnitude of force on the crate, keeping it stationary.

- The normal force exerted by the floor on Crate #1 is greater because the force pushing downward on the floor is greater.
- All choices are false.

- The force of air resistance causes her descent velocity to decrease once the parachute opens.

- The length of the ramp is irrelevant.
- The length of the plane would have an effect on the matter.

- The book's displacement is upward.
- -30 J. is the weight of the 10 N/kg and 1.5 m items.

- The Work- Energy Theorem can be applied with the total work equal to the work done by gravity, because the only force doing work on the block is the force of gravity.
- The negative change in potential energy is equal to the work done by gravity as the block slides down the inclined plane.

- Since a nonconservative force is acting during the motion, use the modifiedConservation of Mechanical Energy equation.

- The rock has lost half of its potential energy because it is at the halfway point.

- 400 W is 200 N and 2 m/s.

- The work done by the frictional force on the slide is what gives you 2.

- The table needs to be filled in.

- This can happen between 0.05 and 0.00 seconds.

- The results will not be affected by a change in mass.

- The skidding distance is 25 m.

- The stopping distance is proportional to the initial speed.
- The skidding distance is doubled if the initial speed is doubled.

- Mass does not affect the skidding distance.

- It equals the change in momentum.

- The change in momentum is equal to the delivery of the ball's impulse.

- The ratio of the energy after the collision to the energy before the collision is 7.

- The net external force in a collision is zero.
- The collision is not elastic if the energy is lost.

- The initial momentum is zero because the two carts are at rest.
- The final total momentum must be zero.

- The bullet must have the same magnitude as the block in order for their combined momentum after impact to be zero.

- In a perfectly inelastic collision, some of the initial energy is lost to heat and some is converted to potential energy in the shapes of the objects as they lock together.

- In the absence of external forces, total linear momentum is maintained.
- If the final speed of both objects is zero, that means the total linear momentum after the collision is zero, which means the total linear momentum before the collision is also zero.
- In order for the total linear momentum to equal 0, Object 2 must have twice the initial speed of Object 1 in order to travel in the opposite direction.

- The centripetal force is provided by the net force toward the center of the steel ball.

- The bullet and block are warmer after the collision than before, and some was used to break the intermolecular bonds within the wooden block to allow the bullet to penetrate.

- The block and bullet feel a net nonzero force that causes them to slow down as they swing upward.
- Its linear momentum can't remain constant because of its decreasing speed.

- The speed is constant but the direction is changing.
- The direction is changing.
- The magnitude of acceleration is constant, but it is directed toward the center.
- Since the direction of acceleration is always changing, so is the velocity.

- The centripetal force is provided by T. T must not leave.
- The bucket would make it around if the speed was greater.

- 2.0 N * m 7 is the weight of 0.80 m.

- Mass does not change with location.
- This eliminates the other one.

- The Moon exerts the same amount of force on the planet as it does on the moon.

- In order for the object to feel no net force, the pull by A must be balanced by the pull by B.

- The velocity must point down because the planet is spinning in a clockwise direction.

- The satellite would have a zero net force if there were no forces or balanced forces.
- The satellite would continue in a straight line if the net force was zero.

- The orbital speed is not determined by the mass of the satellite.

- The work done by the centripetal force is zero since it always points along the center of the circle.
- The Work-Energy Theorem tells you that no work is being done since the object's speed remains constant.

- We could have observed that the planet's gravity must be half the Earth's because a 1 kg mass only weighs 5 N.

- The passenger is moving in a circular motion.

- The passenger must be kept from sliding down if the coefficient of static friction between the passenger and the wall of the cylinder is not met.

- The centripetal force can be provided by N toward the center.

- There is no net vertical force because there is no vertical acceleration.

- Since the restoring force is dependent on the position, the acceleration is not constant.

- Choices (B) and (C) are defining characteristics of the motion.
- Period and Frequency are proportional to one another.

- The potential energy is maximized and the speed is zero at the endpoints of the oscillation region.

- The total energy at any other position is also given by 2.

- The period will not change.

- The period of a simple pendulum is not dependent on the amplitude.

- The block's energy is the same throughout the motion.

- There is no correlation between the frequency and the amplitude.

- Reducing the mass of the block by a factor of 4 would increase the frequencies by a factor of 2.

- The elastic energy potential of the spring is converted to the kinetic energy.

- The new sound is called the new amplitude.

- One-half the period of the wave is equal to the maximum displacement below equilibrium.

- The standing wave must have a Frequency of 7.

- The wave's speed will decrease when it enters the air from the metal rod.
- The frequencies will not change.

- The distance from S2 to P is 5 m, and the distance from S1 to P is 4 m. The sound waves are out of phase when they reach Point P from the two speakers.
- The sound waves will always arrive in phase at Q since Point Q is equidistant from the two speakers.
- The amplitude at P will be less than at Q because of destructive interference at P and constructive interference at Q.

- The observed Frequency will be lower than the source Frequency if the car is traveling away from the stationary detector.
- The eliminations are (B) and (C).

- The number 1 is the number of the wave.

- The mass of the rope must be 2.

- Since the car is traveling toward the students, you can expect the observed Frequency to be higher than the source Frequency.

- Since the car is traveling away from the students, you can expect the observed Frequency to be lower than the source Frequency.

- It will equal 500 Hz.

- As the tuning fork moves upward, the question is what happens to the observed frequencies.
- The speed of the fork tuning will decrease as it moves up.
- The impact of the Doppler effect will decrease as the relative speed between the source and detector decreases.
- As the tuning fork travels upward, the observed frequencies will decrease, although they will still be higher than the source frequencies.

- The conductor has excess electric charge on it.

- E will not change.

- The net electric field at the origin is (c) No.
- The origin is where the individual electric field is due to each of the two charges pointing in opposite directions.
- The two vectors are not equal at that point.

- The total electric field could be zero.

- 1 points upward in the vertical direction.
- 2 points northwest, making a 45 degrees angle with the horizontal from the point, and has both a horizontal and vertical component.

- Plug in the horizontal and vertical components of the electric field at the point solved in (a) to determine the magnitude of the electric field.

- There must be a vertical component that points south and a horizontal component that points east in 4.
- The point is to the north and west.
- There are only a few points that fit this criterion.

30 V is 2 A)(15 )

- The parallel 12 and 4 resistors give an equivalent resistance in the top branch of 3 + 3, which is 6.
- The 6resistor is in close proximity to the bottom 3resistor, giving an equivalent resistance of 2.

- If the middle branch is removed from the parallel circuit, this will not change.

- The equivalent resistance of the three parallel resistors is 2 + 2 + 4 because the 2 resistance is in series with the given 2 resistance.

36 V is 3 A)(12 )

- 500 J 9 is 25 J/s and 20 s.

- Adding a light bulb in series will increase the total resistance of the circuit.

- An equivalent circuit resistance of 10 + 10 + 30 + 10 is given by this 30 resistance.
- There is a difference between 2 A and 120 V.

60 V is equal to (0.5 A)(20 ) + (0.5 A)( 100 )

- 250 J 2 is the number of A and 100 s.

- The currents through the 40, 20 and 60 are all equal.

- There is a law to determine the voltage across the resistors.
- The Junction Rule tells you that the current that must have come through the 10 is 1.5 A.

- The value is 20 V.

- The ratio of the resistors could also have been used.
- We know that the two voltages must sum to 30 V and the drop across the 40 must be twice the amount.
- 15 V. is the ratio of 1.5 A)(10 ) to 10 V.

- If you want to add resistances, you should start by summing the 20 and 40 resistors.

- This section is added to the 10 resistors in a series to get 30.

- The total voltage drop across the battery is 45 V, which is 15 V across the 10 resistor and 30 V across the parallel branch.

- Section I contains 50 multiple-choice questions.

- Both sections of the AP PHYSICS 1 exam can be used with calculus.

- No credit will be given for anything written in the exam booklet, but you can use it for notes or scratch work.
- There are two types of multiple-choice questions.
- After you have decided which of the suggested answers is the best, fill in the corresponding ovals on the answer sheet.
- You have to give both answers in order to earn credit for single-select and multi-select.
- If you change an answer, make sure the previous mark is erased completely.
- Here is an answer to a question.

- Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can.

- Don't spend a lot of time on one question.
- If you have time, you can come back to the questions you have not answered.
- Everyone will not know the answers to all the multiple-choice questions.

- Many candidates wonder if they should guess the answers to the questions.
- Multiple-choice scores are based on the number of questions answered correctly.
- Incorrect answers and unanswered questions are not deducted for points.
- You are encouraged to answer all multiple-choice questions because points are not deducted for incorrect answers.

- If you don't know the answer to a question, you should eliminate as many choices as you can, and then pick the best answer.

- Four suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
- Pick the one that is best in each case and then fill in the circle on the answer sheet.

- An object is thrown from a high cliff with an initial speed of 7.5 m/s.

- The downward pull of gravity and the upward normal force of the floor act on a person standing on a horizontal floor.

- There are two objects with a mass of 1 kg and a charge of 1 C each.

- There is a massless rope and pulley attached to a plane.

- The plane and pulley are massless.

- The platform rotates.

- The moon has an elliptical path around the planet.

- A sphere starts from the top of a hill with a constant angle of inclination and is able to roll.

- Assume that the object strikes the ground before it reaches the terminal.

- The boy and girl are not close to each other, and that tilts in favor of the boy.

- Two objects, a sphere and a block of the same mass, are released from rest at the top of an inclined plane.
- The sphere rolls down the plane.
- The block slides down the plane.

- The mass is in contact with the tracks.

- A linear, elastic collision takes place with a stationary object.

- The force on the block by the table is zero parallel to the table and zero parallel to the table.

- Two objects are in a head-on collision.

- There are two balls of equal mass in the picture above.

- The pendulum can only be displaced by a small amount.

- Someone dug a hole through the center of the Earth to the other side.
- The object can't be destroyed if the conditions are ideal.

- The carnival ride looks like a cylinder.
- People stand against the wall as the cylinder spins.

- The floor can be removed without anyone falling once it is rotating fast.

- The maximum speed of the block is proportional to the square root of the amplitude and the square root of the C.

- A flute supports waves.
- A flute can play only the lowest note.
- You are standing on a railroad track as a train approaches.
- The engineer sounds the whistle when he sees you.

- A 500 O Resistor is connected to a variable voltage source.
- The graph shows that the voltage is increased linearly from 0 V to 5 V over a period of 20 s.

- There are four charges in the figure.

- Two of the suggested answers will be correct.
- Select the two answers that are the best in each case, and then fill in both of the circles on the answer sheet.

- Block A collides with Block B, which is initially at rest, and sticks to it.

- You need to include all the additional equipment.
- You can include a diagram of your setup in your description.
- Tell us what you would take and how you would do it.

- Provide enough detail so that the experiment can be repeated.

- A string is 2.2 meters long and has a conical pendulum hanging from it.
- It makes a circle.
- There is a ball at the end of the string.

- In your diagram, direction is used.

- There are three particles in a horizontal plane.
- The sign of the charge in Particle 1 is not known.
- Particle 2 has a charge that has a magnitude of 1.7 and the sign of the charge is not known.

- Particle 2 exerts force on Particle 3.

- The diagram shows 0 as shown on the left.

- The spring has very little mass.

- Also include a description of the units.

- You can include a diagram of your setup in your description.

- Two small objects, each with a charge of -4.0 nC, are held together by a 0.020 m length of insulating string in the above diagram.
- The objects are at rest on a surface that is notconducting.
- The effects of gravity on each other are insignificant.

- The string is being cut.

- The vertical speed of the object after 2 seconds is 20 m/s.
- The direction will be mostly down, but slightly to the right, because the horizontal speed won't be affected.

- Mass isn't changing, so you only have to consider the changes in velocity.
- Each segment has a change in velocity of +7 m/s, 0 m/s, -4 m/s, and -2 m/s.

- The question doesn't specify magnitude, so all negatives will come before the others.

- The change in time affects the change in velocity.
- The times for each segment are in order, 3 s, 2 s, 1 s, 3 s, and 2 s.

- The area beneath the curve is called displacement.
- A negative displacement would be added to the axis.
- There is no distinction between positive and negative velocity for this question because distance cannot be negative.

- The ball is at the highest point from the ground.

- The Big Five equation can be used to find the distance traveled in the last second.

- The question is about the distance.

- The weight and normal force balance out because the floor is horizontal.
- The two forces do not form an action-reaction pair.
- Two forces must act on each other in order to form an action-reaction.
- Earth's pull on the person, weight, and the person's pull on Earth is the correct action-reaction pair in this situation.

- The force of force on a stationary object will oppose the force applied to it until it reaches a maximum.

- The eliminations are (B) and (D).
- When enough force is applied, the friction will change from static to kinetic.
- This eliminates the value of the kruin.

- All variables will have the same numerical values.
- It comes down to the constants.
- The electric force will be greater because Coulomb's constant is much greater than the gravitational constant.
- The signs of the charges are irrelevant because of the question.

- The answer is (B) because you know you need a sine in the equation for the downward pull of the second mass down the incline of the plane.

- The acceleration of any block in the system is the same as that of any other block because all the mass is attached and moving as a single unit.

- If the centripetal force is at least as much as the force of gravity on the cart, the cart will remain in contact at the top of the loop.

- There is only one true statement regarding rotational motion.
- A mass with more inertia is harder to rotate.
- The closer the mass is to the axis of rotation, the greater the inertia.
- The object moves toward the center of rotation.

- The moon's gravity will be equal to the moon's gravity on the planet.

- The correct way to find distance is with the help of the two others.

- You can find the moon's speed with the help of energy.
- It is possible to find the distance of the Moon from the planet.

- The object is affected by gravity but it doesn't provide the Torque.
- The normal force does not work on the object nor does it provide the Torque.
- The Torque is provided by the friction in this case.

- The ball is rolling down the hill and not sliding down it.
- It makes sense, because when you drive a car the tires grip the road and move you forward at one point.
- If there was no static friction on the road, you wouldn't be able to go anywhere because the tires wouldn't grip onto anything.

- In free fall, an object's terminal speed is its highest speed.
- The speed must still be increasing if it has not yet reached it.
- The eliminations are (C) and (D).
- As speed increases, the object will experience a drag force that increases.
- The net force will decrease since the force from gravity will be constant.
- acceleration will decrease if net force decreases.

- The net force of an object is called the centripetal force.
- It does not have an actionreaction pair.
- The eliminations are (A) and (B).
- The speed of the object in uniform circular motion is constant, but its direction changes with time.
- The centripetal acceleration always points to the center of the circle.
- This eliminates.
- A satellite falling toward the center, but never achieving its goal, is due to its centripetal acceleration.
- As a result of the change in velocity, it would always form a circular path.

- You have to balance the see-saw.

- The choices would double the girl's side Torque and cut the boy's side Torque.

- The boy's Torque would be cut in half, but the girl's Torque would be increased, creating a new imbalance.

- Centripetal force can't ever work because it acts as if the object is moving in a straight line.

- The coefficient of friction would not change because the two materials were in contact.
- The normal force would remain constant because the object's mass would be the same.

- The same amount of energy is used for the objects to go from the top to the bottom.
- Some of the energy will need to be from the rotation of the sphere.
- The block will reach the bottom of the incline first.

- The object has to climb up to decrease its speed, then come back down to its original speed.

- The initial speed is always below during this time.
- The object's initial speed is the same for Path 2.
- As it goes down the path, the object speeds up and then slows down as it climbs.
- The speed is always above the initial speed.

- Both energy and momentum will be conserved for an elastic collision.

- Since the object started at rest, 2,0 is also known to be 0 m/s.
- You can have two unknowns with two equations.
- D is correct.

- The table's surface will have a normal that is parallel to the surface.
- The total force from the table will not be parallel to the surface.

- The force of gravity is acting on the incline.
- The forces in both directions are equal when the box moves upwards.

- The objects have different velocities after a collision and can be immediately eliminated.
- If the energy is conserved, a collision is elastic.

- The collision must be elastic because of the conserved energy.

- There is no change in the ball's horizontal motion in the picture.
- Ball A moves up after the collision.
- The impulse it received is up.

- The centripetal force is the same as the tension and the radial component of gravity.

- The radial component of gravity must have a larger magnitude than the tension.
- The two will be equal at the maximum displacement.
- The correct answer is (B).

- This situation is similar to a spring-block system.
- It would start with some potential energy at one extreme edge, turn it into energy that can be used in other ways, as it moved to the center, and then continue to the other edge due to its momentum.
- In ideal conditions, this process would continue indefinitely.

- This is a rule.

- An example of an actionreaction pair is the forces during a collision.
- The force on the car will be the same in magnitude as it is in direction.
- The forces are in opposite directions.
- Newton's Second Law states that the lighter object will have more force than the heavier object.
- The answer is (B).

- The force of friction needs to be equal to the force of gravity in order to stay in place.

- Next, find the normal force.
- The normal force is equal to the centripetal force when the person is undergoing uniform circular motion.

- The mass drops out of the equation.

- The coefficients of friction, speed, and the radius are the only variables that matter.

- In order for the small block to slide off, there needs to be a big force affecting the larger block.

- The heavier the top block is, the more likely it is to slide off.

- The fundamental frequencies of the flute are the lowest notes that can be played.

- The intensity will increase if the train is approaching you.
- The pitch is determined by the effect.
- The detector is motionless, but the source is moving towards it.
- The pitch will decrease because the brakes of the train will reduce the speed of the train.

- The first thing to do is replace the resistors with an equivalent one.

- The current is the same in 3 of the series.
- There is 3.
- 3 is equal to 60 V 41.

- The total resistance in the circuit would increase if 1 were to burn out.

- In parallel circuits current will distribute itself in a way that is proportional to the resistance in each path.
- The left-hand side of the configuration shows that the resistance on the top is half the resistance on the bottom.
- The current will distribute itself with 1/3 along the top path and 1/3 along the bottom path.
- The 5 O Resistor must have the same resistance as the 20 O Resistor.
- 2.5 O is the unknown.

- You have to take orientation into account to find our magnitude, even though you don't care about the direction of our net vector.
- The charges from the top left are 1, 2, 3, and 4.

- The simplest force to solve is these two.
- The distance needs to be solved first in order to solve charge 1's force on charge 3.
- A triangle is created when they are ordered in a square using a diagonal.

- Changing the location of the Earth to the Moon will cause changes in the period.

- The resistors all have the same voltage across them and match the battery's.
- The battery's voltage doesn't change and the battery still maintains the same.
- Eliminating one of the resistors will increase the resistance.
- The power decreases if the current decreases.

- Big Wave Rule #2 states that when a wave passes into another medium, the frequencies remain the same.

- The speed and wavelength of the wave do not change when it passes into another medium.
- The choice is correct.

- Big Wave Rule #1 states that the wave's speed will be constant.
- The speed will not change even though the sound wave is in a metal rod.

- Give it an initial speed by pushing Block A.
- Measure the time it takes for the blocks to cross the marked distances with a stopwatch.

- The distances are divided by the time.

- Because the pendulum makes a horizontal circle, it is important to draw the direction of the force represented by the tension along the path of the string.

- The centripetal acceleration can be solved by knowing this.

- The string has an angle of 57 degrees.
- The ball will travel at a speed of 3.

- The current net force is to the left.
- You need to cancel this out with a force that is completely to the right.
- If you want to repel an object and make it move in a certain direction, you need to be to that object's left.

- The values between 450 N/m and 550 N/m are acceptable.

- Allow the toy to jump up if you hold the meter stick next to it.
- You can watch the video in slow motion to determine its height.
- You can use the equations to determine the height.

- The objects are moving at a slower rate.
- As the objects move further apart, the force decreases.
- The acceleration decreases as well.

- Section I contains 50 multiple-choice questions.

- Both sections of the AP PHYSICS 1 exam can be used with calculus.

- No credit will be given for anything written in the exam booklet, but you can use it for notes or scratch work.
- There are two types of multiple-choice questions, single-select and multi-select.
- After you have decided which of the suggested answers is the best, fill in the corresponding ovals on the answer sheet.
- You have to give both answers in order to earn credit for single-select and multi-select.
- If you change an answer, make sure the previous mark is erased completely.
- Here is an answer to a question.

- Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can.

- Don't spend a lot of time on one question.
- If you have time, you can come back to the questions you have not answered.
- Everyone will not know the answers to all the multiple-choice questions.

- Many candidates wonder if they should guess the answers to the questions.
- Multiple-choice scores are based on the number of questions answered correctly.
- Incorrect answers and unanswered questions are not deducted for points.
- You are encouraged to answer all multiple-choice questions because points are not deducted for incorrect answers.

- If you don't know the answer to a question, you should eliminate as many choices as you can, and then pick the best answer.

- Four suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
- Pick the one that is best in each case and then fill in the circle on the answer sheet.

- A kayaker who is able to propel her kayak at 1.5 m/s wishes to paddle directly east one bank to the other.

- A student lives close to school.
- It takes 10 minutes to get from home to school.

- She traveled 1.2 km.

- Her speed was 2 m/s.

- Her average speed was 2 m/s.

- An airtanker is being used.

- Two cannons are fired from a cliff.
- Cannonball A is fired at a rate of 40 m/s.
- Cannonball B is fired at a launch angle of 60 degrees.

- A car goes at a constant rate for eight seconds.

- A student is pushing a book across a table with a constant force of 30.0 N directed below the horizontal.
- The book and the table have the same coefficients.

- A box with a mass of 2 kilogram is placed on a plane that makes a 30 degree angle with the horizontal.

- The hammer comes to rest after hitting a nail.
- The hammer recoils after hitting the nail and bounces back at the worker.

- A box with a mass of 5 kilomes is sliding across a table at a speed of 2 m/s.

- A student applies a constant force of 30 N.

- A 2000 kilo is traveling at 20 m/s.
- The truck slows to 10 m/s after the driver applies the break.

- A car with a mass of 1000 kg drives at a constant speed of 15 m/s and experiences a force of 3500 N.

- A student launched a small rocket with a mass of 50 kg into the air with an initial velocity of 10 m/s in the positive vertical direction.
- The student turns on the secondary engines of the rocket to apply a constant upwards force that increases the rocket's speed to 15 m/s.

- A student drops a rock off a cliff.

- A plutonium atom is at rest.

- The atom emits an alpha particle with a mass of 4 Da with a speed of 45 m/s east.

- A truck travelling north at 40.0 m/s collides with a car travelling west at 20.0 m/s.

- A ball traveling at 25 m/s collides with a ball traveling at 20 m/s.
- Both objects reverse direction after impact, with the 2 kg ball traveling at 2.5 m/s and the 1 kg ball traveling at 35 m/s.

- A baseball travelling at 40 m/s horizontally is struck by a baseball bat.
- The baseball leaves the bat at 50 m/s back in the direction it came from, but at an angle of 40deg above the horizontal.

- Object 2 is traveling in the same direction as Object 1.
- A student is attaching a mass to a string.
- The student starts to whirl the mass in a circle.

- A planetoid is in a circular path.

- The bar is 1.5 m long.
- The far left side of the bar has a mass 1 attached to it.
- The far right side of the bar has a mass 2 attached to it.
- The bar has a mass 3 attached to it.

- The ceiling has a 10 kilo mass attached to it.

- A block attached to the end of a horizontal spring has a natural length of 10 cm.
- The natural length increases by 2 cm when the spring is attached to the ceiling.

- A 3 kilo mass is attached to the ceiling to make a simple pendulum.

- The sound wave's energy is increased.

- A car traveling at 30 m/s is playing loud music.

- The conductor blows the horn as the train approaches the next stop.

- 2, have equal resistance, and are connected in a circuit with a battery as shown in the figure above.

- A 10 V battery is connected to two 5 W resistors.
- A 10 V battery is connected to two 5 W resistors.

- Two of the suggested answers will be correct.
- Select the two answers that are the best in each case, and then fill in both of the circles on the answer sheet.

- The following graph shows the motion of an object.

- A cannon is used to launch a speaker that emits waves with a vertical velocity of 80 m/s.
- The cannon has a detector on the ground.

- Two spheres are placed side by side on a plane and released at the same time.
- The spheres roll down the plane.

- The average is found using a formula.

- The axis can be 3.

- The student starts her journey at home and ends up at school.
- It is not known if she traveled in a straight line from home to school or if she took a detour.
- This causes me to be incorrect, eliminating (A) and (D).
- Her average speed is unknown since she doesn't know the distance she travels.
- This makes II false.
- She is known to have a magnitude of 1.2 km because of her displacement, which is an overall change in position.

- Making III and therefore (C) correct.

- The position-versus-time graphs are linear and show constant velocity and zero acceleration.
- The position-versus-time graph has a negative velocity but a positive acceleration.
- The position-versus time graph has a negative speed.
- The choice is correct.

- The object is moving in the positive direction in section 1.
- The object is moving in the negative direction.

- The objet is moving in the negative direction in section 4.
- The object is moving in the negative direction in section 2.
- The choice is correct.

- 660 m is 85 m/s.

- The components of the displacement have to be calculated separately.
- 40 m/s is equal to 80 m/s.
- The difference in the magnitude of displacement will be determined bydirection.

- Cannonball B will have a bigger displacement after 2 s.

- The variables involved in the question are the initial velocity, the final velocity, and the skidding distance.

- The final position is halved when the acceleration is doubled.

- The push from the student is one of the four forces acting on the book.
- The table on the book exerts normal force and gravity.

- The force on the book from the table is the sum of the normal and friction forces.

- The weight of the box, the normal force of the inclined plane on the box, and the force of friction are some of the free forces acting on the box.
- The box's weight can be divided into two parts.

- The tan30deg is equal to 0.58 12.

- The hammer had the same initial speed.

- The hammer experienced a greater force when it struck the object.
- As the contact time of both strikes is the same, a greater change in speed will be produced.
- The strike that involved a greater force on the hammer had a greater change in velocity.
- The magnitude of the final velocity was not given to you.
- You can say that it has a negative value because the direction was opposite to the initial velocity.

- The minimum force required to maintain the speed of 2 m/s will result in no change.

- The force needed to maintain the speed is 12.3 N.

- The area under the curve is what the work is done on a force-versus-position graph.

- 120 J 15 is 4 m.

- The net force on the car must be zero in order to maintain a constant speed.
- The car's engine must be applying a force equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
- 15 m/s is 52,500 W.

- This is all the work done on the rocket.
- The force of gravity must have done at least 750 J of work as the rocket's secondary engines did 2,000 J of work.

- The rock's potential energy is converted into energy.

- The plutonium atom has an initial momentum of 0.
- The total final momentum must be equal to 0.

- As the alpha particle traveled west, the decay product must have traveled east.

- The final momentum is the sum of the initial momentums of both vehicles.

- The objects didn't stick together after the collision.

- The collision is inelastic because the energy was not conserved.

- There are three true statements about perfectly inelastic collisions.
- Choice is not a true statement.
- There is only one way in which energy is conserved.

- The speed of the object is 4 m/s.

- The tension force that snapped the string is equal to the breaking strength when the mass is traveling at 8 m/s.

- The magnitude of the force will be doubled if the mass of one object is doubled.
- The magnitude of the force will be reduced by a factor of nine.
- There is a new magnitude of the force.

- 2p (2 m) is 4p m.

- 18p m is 4p m.

- The net force on the mass is equal to 0.
- The weight of the mass and the vertical components of the two tension forces are acting in the vertical direction.

- T is 70.7 N 33.

- The period of the oscillations will not be affected by changing the amplitude.

- When the spring is attached to the ceiling, the upward force of the spring balances the weight of the block.

- 15 N 36 is the weight of 10 m/s2.

- The total energy at any other position is also given by 2.

- The potential energy is less than the total energy.

- The wavelength of the wave is 1 m because the distance between crest and trough is equal to half of a wavelength.

- The maximum displacement of the medium from equilibrium is related to the energy of a wave.
- Since sound is a longitudinal wave, the medium it travels through will be parallel to the direction of propagation.

- In order for the passengers of the truck to hear the music from the car with no change in the Frequency, there must be no relative motion between the car and the truck.
- If the truck has the same magnitude and direction as the car, it's true.

- The person's perception of the sound of the horn is higher than the original sound of the train because of the Doppler effect.
- The person still sees a higher Frequency as the train slows, but it is not as high as it was.
- The person hears a decrease in the sound of the horn.
- The intensity of the horn is perceived by the person.

- The current through each of the resistors doesn't change.
- The energy dissipated by each unit time is constant.

- There is a difference between the current produced in the two circuits.

- The direction of the individual electric fields produced by the two charges is the same.

- When springs are connected in a series.

- The sum of the forces acting on an object is zero.
- The object's acceleration is also 0 if the net force on the object is equal to 0.
- An object can have both net and nonzero energy.

- The frequency of the pendulum would increase if the length of the pendulum was decreased.

- Negative displacement is the axis.

- Section a tells you that the object is moving in a positive direction.

- Section b tells you that the object is traveling in a positive direction.
- Section c tells you that the object is moving in the positive direction even though it is slowing down.
- Section d tells you that the object is moving in a negative direction and speeding up.

- The speaker has a downward velocity of 20 m/s after 10 s.

- The intensity will be doubled by decreasing the distance between the detector and speaker.
- The detector's intensity is equal to 3.2 x 10-8 W/m2 when the speaker is at half its maximum height.

- The total change around a closed loop must be zero.

- The resistance of the voltmeter should be very high in order to minimize the impact on the circuit.

- A(15 O) + A(20 O) is equal to 25 V.

- There are three forces acting on the spheres in a free body diagram.
- The weight of the sphere and the normal force must be combined to provide the Torque.

- Both objects experience the same force.

- The hollow sphere has more inertia than the solid sphere because it is distributed further from the axis.
- The solid sphere can reach the bottom of the plane first with a smaller inertia.

- Both objects start with zero energy.
- The potential energy of both objects is converted into energy when they reach the bottom of the inclined plane.
- Both objects have the same energy at the bottom of the plane.

- Section I contains 50 multiple-choice questions.

- Both sections of the AP PHYSICS 1 exam can be used with calculus.

- No credit will be given for anything written in the exam booklet, but you can use it for notes or scratch work.
- There are two types of multiple-choice questions, single-select and multi-select.
- After you have decided which of the suggested answers is the best, fill in the corresponding ovals on the answer sheet.
- You have to give both answers in order to earn credit for single-select and multi-select.
- If you change an answer, make sure the previous mark is erased completely.
- Here is an answer to a question.

- Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can.

- Don't spend a lot of time on one question.
- If you have time, you can come back to the questions you have not answered.
- Everyone will not know the answers to all the multiple-choice questions.

- Many candidates wonder if they should guess the answers to the questions.
- Multiple-choice scores are based on the number of questions answered correctly.
- Incorrect answers and unanswered questions are not deducted for points.
- You are encouraged to answer all multiple-choice questions because points are not deducted for incorrect answers.

- If you don't know the answer to a question, you should eliminate as many choices as you can, and then pick the best answer.

- Four suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
- Pick the one that is best in each case and then fill in the circle on the answer sheet.

- An explorer travels 30 m east, then 20 m south of east, and then 140 m north.

- The explorer traveled 60 s, 130 s, and 70 s to travel 30 m, 20 m, and 140 m north.

- The position-versus-time graph of an object is shown above.

- A cannonball is fired with an initial velocity of 20 m/s and a launch angle of 45deg at a wall 30 m away.

If the final speed of the car is 15 m/s, what was the acceleration of the 9?

- The rocket is in the air.
- The rocket is 40 m above the ground a few moments after liftoff.
- The rocket is now 200 m off the ground.

- A student presses a book.
- A box with a mass of 10 kilograms is placed on a plane that makes a 60 degree angle with the horizontal.

- A 2000 kilo car has a head on collision with a 1000 kilo car.

- Two students push two boxes.

- A worker moves a 30 kilo box by pulling on a rope that makes a 60 degree angle with the horizontal.

- To maintain a speed of 30 m/s up an incline, a car's engine must exert a force of 2,000 N.

- A ball with a speed of -20 m/s collides with the wall and bounces back with a speed of 10 m/s.

- The average force experienced by the ball should be determined if it is in contact with the wall.

- A ball traveling to the right collides with a ball at rest.
- The 2 km ball is traveling to the right at 2 m/s and the 1 km ball is traveling to the right at 8 m/s after impact.

- There is a perfect inelastic collision between a 3 kilo mass and a 2 kilo mass with an initial velocity of +3 m/s.

- A soldier loads a cannonball into a cannon that is at rest on the ground.

- A mechanical wheel at rest on the floor starts rolling forward with an acceleration of rad/s2.

- The bar is 1 m long.
- The far left side of the bar has a mass 1 attached to it.
- Mass 2 is on the far right side of the bar.

- A pulley with rope is connected to a box.

- A spring is attached to a block.
- The restoring force is 6 N when the block is pulled 5 cm to the right.

- A block with a force constant of 10 N/m is attached to a spring.

- A pendulum has a period of 2 s.

- The sound in the air is very fast.

- The tube has a sound speed of 343 m/s.

- The conductor blows the horn as the train approaches the next stop.

- Two of the suggested answers will be correct.
- Select the two answers that are the best in each case, and then fill in both of the circles on the answer sheet.

- The position-versus-time graph of an object is shown above.

- 2 are fixed in place and separated by 30 cm.

- A spring with a force constant of 40 N/m is attached to a block.

- A machine launches a ball to the right with an initial velocity of 16 m/s at a launched angle of 30deg to a student standing 20 m away with a baseball bat.

- The displacement is the same as the position of the explorer.

- The explorer's magnitude is 50i + 120j.

- The object must be moving in a negative direction because of the decreasing position.

- The magnitude of the velocity must be decreasing because the position of the object is decreasing at a slower rate.
- The choice is correct.

- The object is moving in the positive direction in section 1.
- The object is moving in the negative direction in section 2.

- The object is moving in the negative direction.
- The objet is moving in the negative direction in section 4.
- The choice is correct.

- When a projectile reaches the top of its trajectory, it's a zero.
- Thevelocity of projectiles is smallest at the apex of the trajectory as the horizontal velocity in standard parabolic motion is always constant.
- The choice is correct.
- The choice is incorrect as the projectile can still have a horizontal velocity, which is constant at all points of the trajectory.
- Projectiles can't have the maximum energy at the same time as they have the smallest velocity.

- How long does it take for the cannonball to hit the wall?
- This is a vertical question.

- The cannonball can clear the maximum height of the wall.

- There are two forces acting on the book in the horizontal direction, the force applied by the student and the normal force from the wall.
- There are two forces acting on the book in the vertical direction.
- The net force on the book must be zero in the horizontal and vertical directions in order for the student to hold the book.

- The student needs to apply a force of 25 N to hold the book in place.

- The weight of the box, the normal force of the inclined plane on the box, and the force applied are some of the forces acting on the box.
- The box's weight can be divided into two parts.

- A force of 76.6 N is needed to prevent the box from sliding.

- When the heavier car exerts a force on the smaller car, that small car exerts an equal but opposite force back onto the heavy car.
- Both forces have the same magnitude.

- The box has two forces acting on it: the weight of the box and the tension force from the string.

- The string's breaking strength limits the block's maximum speed.

- 30 m/s2 is equal to 90 J 18.

- The block has potential energy.

- Half of the potential energy of the block has been converted to kinetic energy at the halfway point.

- The force of friction reduces the energy of the block.

- The block has traveled 2 m as it is halfway down.

- 20,000 W 20 is 2000 N (30 m/s).

- The work can be calculated using the Work-Energy Theorem.

- The objects didn't stick together after the collision.

- The collision was inelastic because of the conserved energy.

- The total initial momentum is 0.
- The total final momentum must be equal to 0.

- The reading on the scale is the same as the magnitude of the downward scale that the man on the scale exerts.
- This is equivalent to the normal force exerted by the scale on the man.
- The normal force of the scale and the weight of the man are acting on the man.

- 5 m/s 31 is equal to 10 rad/s.

- The center of mass has shifted to the left.

- The weight of the box pulls down the rope, causing a Torque on the pulley.

- The mass of the object is proportional to rotational inertia.
- They have smaller masses, so eliminate them.
- The mass is from the axis of ration.
- The axis of rotation is farther away from a hollow ball than it is from a solid ball.
- The choice is correct.

- All of the energy from the block has been converted to potential energy.

- Standing waves have zero and maximum waves.

- In standing waves, complete constructive interference occurs at antinodes.
- The choice is correct.

- The number of the standing wave is 5 because of the expression for the wavelength of the nth harmonic.

- The electric force is the same.

- The person's perception of the sound of the horn is higher than the original sound of the train because of the Doppler effect.
- The person still sees a higher Frequency as the train slows, but it is not as high as it was.
- The person hears a decrease in the sound of the horn.
- The intensity of the horn is perceived by the person.

- 2 O + 4 O is 6 O 45.

- An object with a constant magnitude of acceleration is indicative of a parabolic position-versus-time graph.

- The object is moving in the negative direction because of the decreasing position.
- The speed of the object must be decreasing because the position of the object is decreasing at a slower rate.
- The choices are correct.

- The second wave rule states that when a wave passes into another medium, it's speed doesn't change.

- There are two true statements regarding objects undergoing uniform circular motion.
- The direction of the objects' velocity changes as they move in a circle.
- Choice is wrong.
- The center of the circle is where the centripetal acceleration is directed.
- Choice is wrong.

- The work done by conservative forces is independent.
- There is a conservative force.
- Nonconservative forces do work that is path dependent.
- Choice is wrong.
- Friction is not conservative.
- Choice is wrong.

- The type of wave and the characteristics of the medium determine the speed of a wave.
- The wave's speed does not depend on the wave's energy or Frequency.
- Choices A and B are not correct.

- 2 will always have a positive value.
- The two mass are traveling in opposite directions.
- 2 would be moving in a positive direction.

- The electric force between charges is attractive.

- The electric field is equal to the sum of the individual electric fields produced by each charge.

- 2 x 10-9 nC, 3 x 103 N/C, and 6 x 10-6 N 3.

- The spring's natural length would decrease by 0.025 m.

- The mass is trying to slide down the incline in the opposite direction as in (a).

- The student needs to hit the ball with the bat.

- The force is north of the west.

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- Title Page

- Copyright

- Acknowledgments

- Contents

- Register Your Book Online!

- Part I: Using This Book to Improve Your AP Score Preview: Your Knowledge, Your Expectations Your Guide to Using This Book How to Begin

- Part II: Practice Test 1 Practice Test 1 Practice Test 1: Answers and Explanations

- Part III: About the AP Physics 1 Exam The Structure of the AP Physics 1 Exam A Quick Word About Equations How AP Exams Are Used Other Resources Designing Your Study Plan

- Part IV: Test-Taking Strategies for the AP Physics 1 Exam Preview 1. How to Approach Multiple-Choice Questions 2. How to Approach Free-Response Questions Reflect

- Part V: Content Review for the AP Physics 1 Exam 3. Vectors Definition Scalar Multiplication Vector Subtraction Two-Dimensional Vectors Vector Operations Using Components Magnitude of a Vector Direction of a Vector Chapter 3 Review Questions Summary 4. Kinematics Position Displacement Looking at Distance vs. Time Graphs Speed and Velocity Acceleration Uniformly Accelerated Motion and the Big Five Additional Kinematic Graphical Aspects Qualitative Graphing Free Fall Projectile Motion Chapter 4 Review Questions Summary 5. Newton's Laws Introduction to Forces Newton's First Law Newton's Second Law Newton's Third Law Newton's Laws: A Summary Weight Normal Force An Overall Strategy Friction Pulleys Inclined Planes Chapter 5 Review Questions Summary 6. Work, Energy, and Power Energy: An Overview Work Work at an Angle Work Done by a Variable Force Kinetic Energy The Work-Energy Theorem Potential Energy Conservation of Mechanical Energy Conservation of Energy with Nonconservative Forces Power Chapter 6 Review Questions Summary 7. Linear Momentum Introduction to Momentum What is Momentum? Impulse Conservation of Linear Momentum Collisions Chapter 7 Review Questions Summary 8. Uniform Circular Motion, Newton's Law of Gravitation, and Rotational Motion Uniform Circular Motion Newton's Law of Gravitation Banking Rotational Motion Center of Mass Torque Equilibrium Rotational Inertia Chapter 8 Review Questions Summary 9. Oscillations Simple Harmonic Motion The Spring-Block Oscillator: Vertical Motion Pendulums Chapter 9 Review Questions Summary 10. Waves Transverse Traveling Waves Wave Speed on a Stretched String Superposition of Waves Standing Waves Sound Waves Resonance for Sound Waves The Doppler Effect Chapter 10 Review Questions Summary 11. Electric Forces and Fields Electric Charge Coulomb's Law The Electric Field Chapter 11 Review Questions Summary 12. Direct Current Circuits Electric Current Resistance Voltage Electric Circuits Circuit Analysis Chapter 12 Review Questions Summary 13. Answers and Explanations to the Chapter Review Questions

- Part VI: More Practice Tests Practice Test 2 Practice Test 2: Answers and Explanations Practice Test 3 Practice Test 3: Answers and Explanations Practice Test 4 Practice Test 4: Answers and Explanations

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