Political parties were not allowed to put their names on the ballot.
None of the candidates were incumbents.
Incumbency and another frequently used voting cue were absent.
There were 133 candidates who ran.
Without knowing anything about the individual candidate, voters can make reliable assumptions about the candidate's stance on issues based on his or her political party.
Having a Mexican American name seemed to be an advantage based on the results of the election.
The names that began with the letters A to F did better than those that began with the letters F. A well-known name helped.
The son of a former governor was one of the winners.
He was elected California governor in 1975 and again in 2010 after winning this election.
Parties play an important role in facilitating voting.
Rarely are American voters asked to choose between candidates.
This view that parties are essential to democracy runs counter to a long-standing and deeply seated distrust of parties.
In Los Angeles, voters had to choose between scores of candidates for each offi ce.
They would need to research each candidate's policy positions in order to make an educated choice.
Assess the effects of primary functions in American fund-raising and of recent party of parties in political parties as expenditures, reforms and democracies and identify institutions and distinguish the U.S.
Romney and Ryan were campaigning in hard-fought Ohio on Sunday.
The saying "Americans vote for the person, not the party" is not true.
David B. Magleby explains the role that partisanship plays in American government, as well as its ability to simplify campaign messages and political processes for citizens.
The effectiveness of the winner takes all electoral system in the United States is evaluated by real people who weigh in on whether third parties should have more representation in national elections.
The power that party members have to change their organization's values and priorities is emphasized in the book by David B. Magleby.
Parties are consequences of democracy and an instrument of it.
American voters take for granted the peaceful transfer of power from one party to another, even in new democracies where the positions and philosophy of the party holding power may be questionable.
Well-established parties help keep democracy stable.
We look at the evolution of American political parties.
Although U.S. political cal parties and party affiliation is not parties have changed over time, they remain important in three different settings.
We discuss the strength of parties and the prospects for reform.
The 6.1 U.S. party system is different from those in European democracies.
Parties are primarily used to win elections and control the government.
Some elections don't allow candidates to identify their party.
partisanship is not relevant to being a good judge, mayor, or school board member according to advocates of nonpartisan elections.
Lacking a party cue as a simpler device, voters turn to name familiarity of candidates or other simpler devices.
Local elections are held at times other than when state or federal elections are held.
Fewer voters turn out for nonpartisan elections than for standard partisan elections.
Parties are often accused of creating confl ict, but they actually help unify the electorate and moderate conflict, at least within the party.
There is a strong incentive for parties to come together to take on the opposition.
To win elections, parties need to reach out to voters outside their party.
The action helps unify the electorate into the two large national political parties in the American system.
There are great diffi culty building coalitions on controversial issues such as birth control, abortion, or gun control.
Candidates and parties try to avoid the issue of the election in single-issue terms.
They hope that if voters disagree with the party's stance on one issue, they will still support it because they agree with other issues.
People who are members of the winning political party are given government jobs.
Political parties inform and motivate voters.
A senior and political science major at Western Kentucky University makes calls from the local Republican Party headquarters to encourage voters to support GOP candidates.
State and national governments in the United States are organized by political parties.
The party with the most votes in each chamber selects the committee chairs, and has a majority on all the committees.
State legislatures are organized along party lines.
The Republicans regained a majority in the House in the 2010 election, while the Democrats retained a small majority in the Senate.
It was expected that the Democrats would lose Senate seats because of the large number of Democrats up for reelection and retirements on both sides.
Two Republicans' statements about rape hurt their campaigns.
The Democrats have a majority in the Senate of 55 to 45.
Republicans retained their majority in the House.
More than 3000 posts in the federal government are restricted by civil service regulations to the top posts, but such appointments are limited only by that.
There are attorneys at the state and local levels.
Party leaders and elected politicians who have loyal partisans in key positions will be able to achieve their policy objectives thanks to patronage.
One of the great strengths of our democracy is that even the party that wins an election has to moderate what it does to win reelection.
The party that wins the election has a chance to fulfill its campaign promises.
Compared to countries with strong parties, American parties have had limited success in setting the course of national policy.
Offi ceholders in such systems are expected to act in line with their party's wishes and vote along party lines, or they will not be allowed to run again under the party label.
If they win control of the election, candidates are expected to implement party platforms.
When national choose party officials or candidates security is at issue, parties restrain their criticism, as the Democrats in Congress did after September 11, 2001.
Pressure is put on the new president to act quickly.
The honeymoon can be shortened by mistakes or controversies.
The United States was established through the method of nomination.
The caucus was not representative of people from areas where a party was in a minority, as only ceholders took part in it.
It brought in delegates from districts that had no elected legislators.
The delegates selected the candidates, debated and adopted a platform, and built party spirit by celebrating noisily.
The convention method was criticized as being controlled by the party bosses.
At the national level, delegates have little freedom to change their votes during the convention.
After Wisconsin adopted them in 1905 as a way to bring democracy to a region that had seen no meaningful general elections since the end of Reconstruction in the 1870s, primaries spread to other parts of the country.
Direct primaries were the norm in most states by 1920.
The direct primary is used to pick party candidates.
It varies from state to state.
Primary elections are important because they have an impact on the role played by party organizations and on the strategy used by another party.
The blanket primary was found to violate its members' free association rights by the Supreme Court.
In 2010 and 2012 California voters overwhelmingly passed an initiative to allow voters to cast their primary ballot for a candidate from any party, with the top two vote getters then running in the general election.
Proponents of the top two vote getter primary see it as fostering more moderate politics.
Along with modern communications and fund-raising techniques, direct prima ries have diminished the infi ciency of leaders of political parties.
Critics think the change has had bad consequences.
Candidates are less accountable to the party during and after the election as party leaders have less inference over who gets to be the candidate.
Most party candidates are nominated in direct primaries.
In some states, local caucuses choose delegates to attend regional meetings, which in turn select delegates to state and national conventions where they nominate party candidates for offi ces.
More than a dozen states used caucuses in 2012 to pick delegates for the presidential nominations.
Iowa's Democratic caucus is an unwieldy and complex process.
A precinct captain takes a head count to determine support for candidates.
Having a competitive two-party system is something that citizens of the United States take for granted, but not all countries place the same level of impor tance on it.
84 percent of respondents from the United States said being able to choose from at least two political parties was very important.
Germany, like many countries in Europe, has a strong party system and more than two competitive parties and had a similar pattern of opinion to the United States on the importance of a two-party system.
The data for Germany, South Korea, and the United States came from a survey.
The data for India, Mexico, and Nigeria came from a survey.
The responses from the most recent survey for that country have been included.
The German two-party system was replaced by a single party when Hitler came to power.
One of the few remaining single-party states is North Korea.
Over time, a small political party is often composed of no opposition.
In 2012 Republican participation in some states was lower.
Our presidential system gives each party a percentage of countries that have a parliamentary government, whereas an election system gives each party a percentage of countries that have a parliamentary government.
Multiparty systems are often used in parliamentary democracies.
A small percentage of votes can give a party the power to form a coalition.
Minor parties can get positions in a cabinet in exchange for joining a coalition.
Minor parties are willing to bargain with the major parties.
The multiparty system favors the existence of minor parties by giving them incentives to help form a government.
Minor parties in a two-party system can't overcome the assumption that a vote for them is a wasted vote because a party does not gain anything by fi nishing second.
In an election system in which the winner is the candidate in a single-member district, there is a tendency to have two parties.
In multiparty systems, parties at the extremes are more likely to have more views of the electorate than in our two-party system.
Our parties don't form a cohesive voting bloc as ideological parties do in multiparty systems.
The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) Party has a majority in the parliament thanks to an alliance with two other parties.
Under international pressure to be as supportive of the European Union's struggling economies as possible, as well as domestic pressure to not go too far in assisting the European Union's struggling economies, she has been under pressure to not go too far.
As coalitions form and collapse, multiparty parliamentary systems can make governments unstable.
In contrast, two-party systems produce governments that are stable and centrist, and as a result, policy changes are gradual.
When a candidate has a charismatic personality, candidate-based parties usually disappear.
Minor parties built around an ideology tend to last longer than those built around a particular leader.
Green parties are of the ideological type.
Minor parties of both types run in elections.
The Right to Life Party is active in New York and other states.
Another example of an ideological third party is the party.
Minor parties have never won the presidency or more than a few congressional seats.
In gubernatorial elections, 14 Th ey have done better.
The Libertarian, Green, and Reform parties are minor parties.
Only parties that received electoral votes at least once, or more than 3 percent of the popular vote at least once, are included.
The vote cast for one or another Bill Owens could match the 48 percent of the vote the Democrat received in the 2000 presi.
How you answer this question is dependent on what the people who vote to decide among you want to accomplish with your vote do.
Many people who support minor party candidates will likely vote for a minor party candidate with little chance of winning if they see the vote as symbolic.
The problem is that the moreelectable express their preferences, and so a runoff is candidate who is clearly preferred over the other more already accomplished with the plurality-winner sys competitive alternative may not win office at all.
This trade-off is more consequential because of the winner-takeall system.
A minor party might win an office.
Minor parties face obstacles in their native candidate's views.
One way to reduce the influence of candi dates is to have a second round of voting for the top two vote getters.
Political parties were created out of necessity.
The same early lead that led to expanded speach and change in the ers who so frequently stated their opposition to them also recognized the need to economy and society that proves to be organize officeholders who shared their views so that government could act.
As citizens debated the U.S. Constitution, parties began to form.
Hamilton and his ways were uncertain about how to deal with the political differences that they had with the policies he favored.
The party was later known as Republicans and Democrats.
The underlying characteristics of American political parties have not changed over time.
We used to have a two-party system.
Moderate and accommodative, our parties are open to people with different outlooks.
Realigning elections are characterized by intense voter involvement, disruptions of traditional voting patterns, changes in the relationships of power within the political community, and the formation of new and durable electoral groupings.
There have been four realigning elections in American party history, according to 19 political scientists.
There is no evidence that the United States was due for another election in the 1970s or 1980s.
Andrew Jackson, the hero of the battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812, was defeated by John Quincy Adams in the 1824 election, which led to a renewed interest in party politics.
Jackson, aided by Martin Van Buren, a veteran party builder in New York State, knitted together a winning combination of regions, interest groups, and political doctrines to win the presidency in 1828.
The Whigs became the opposition party.
The Democrats had become a large, nationwide movement with national and state leadership, a clear party doctrine, and a grassroots organization by the time Van Buren followed Jackson in the White House.
In 1840, the Whigs put their own man, General William Henry Harrison, into the White House.
There was a two-party system.
Many workers and farmers supported Lincoln when he was elected in 1860.
The Democratic Party had a white-male base in the South.
Their electoral base was jeopardized until it became obvious.
A combination of western and southern farmers and mining interests sought an alliance with workers in the East and Midwest to "recapturing America from the foreign moneyed interests responsible for industrialization."
The crisis of industrialization placed an agrarian- fundamentalist view of life against an industrial- progressive view.
The party in power did not change hands in 1896.
The Progressive wing of the Republican Party led a wave of political reform in the 20th century.
The Progressives focused on the corrupt political parties.
Some of the patronage was taken out of the hands of the party offi cials.
A number of cities abolished the role of a party in their governments.
Major changes in political power were produced by the progressive era.
Voters won the right to choose their senators through popular vote under the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1913, while women won the right to vote under the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.
In a short time, the electorate changed, the rules changed, and the stakes of the game changed.
Democrats were the minority party until the early 1930s, when the Great Depression overwhelmed the Republican Hoover administration, because they were unable to build a winning coalition.
The election of 1932 was a turning point in US politics.
The United States was facing an economic collapse in the 1930s.
Unemployment rose from 1.5 million to more than 12 million, and the gross national product fell more than 10 percent per year between 1929 and 1932.
Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Democrats were swept into offi ce in 1932 by a tide of anti-Hoover and anti-Republican sentiment.
After a century of sporadic government action, the New Dealers fundamentally altered the relationship between government and society by providing government jobs for the unemployed and using government expenditures to spur economic growth.
The role of govern ment in the economy was a dividing line between Republicans and Democrats.
The government had to act to pull the country out of the Depression according to Roosevelt Democrats.
Republicans objected to expanding the scope of government.
An enduring realignment is seen as a result of the 1932 election.
The Democrats enlarged the role of government in response to the Great Depression.
In October of 1932, Roosevelt greeted farmers in Georgia while he was campaigning for the presidency.
The party demographic has changed in recent decades.
The "Solid South" that Democrats could count on to bolster their legislative majorities and help win the White House has become the "Republican South" in presidential elections and congressional elections.
Republican congressional leaders often come from southern states.
The shift to conservatism in the GOP was reinforced by the rise of the Republican South.
In the past, Congress has had a divided control with one party having a majority in the House and the other in the Senate.
During the past half century, there have been periods of unifi ed party control of government, but they have been more volatile than earlier realignments.
The foundation of the current system of party identification is based on the New Deal and the critical election of 1932, events that took place more than three-quarters of a century ago.
We assume that voters in six states used secret ballots when they cast their votes in 1896.
The ballots were not provided by the office.
The organization of the ballot can be important to the government, but printed differently by the parties in fostering more or less partisan voting.
Colored paper was distributed in partisan newspapers.
It's possible for people to vote based on how they voted, if they knew how they voted.
Vot years were included in other voting systems.
We haven't experienced a major realignment since 1932, according to most scholars.
Power has changed hands many times in the past few decades without long-term changes in the population.
The fundamental party divide has not changed.
The number of registered voters expanded during the 2008 election, suggesting high levels of voter interest.
More than 1-in-10 voters in the primary elections in 2008 were fi rst-time voters.
The 2008 election produced an immediate backlash among conservative voters that later became known as the Tea Party movement.
31 Tea Party activists were particularly concerned about growing defi cits, health care reform, illegal immigration, protecting gun rights, and big government.
Compared to other Republicans, Barack Obama is more unfavorably, is in favor of reducing the defi cit more than creating jobs, and watches Fox News.
33 Tea Party supporters were part of the coalition that elected Scott Brown to the U.S. Senate in the Massachusetts Special Election in January 2010.
The Tea Party helped the GOP get a majority in the House of Representatives in 2010, but hindered the party's hopes of getting a majority in the U.S. Senate.
In Nevada, Delaware, and Colorado, Tea Party-supported candidates lost Senate races.
In 2012 there were two Tea Party Republicans in the Senate.
Richard Lugar was defeated for the nomination.
The candidate in Missouri was at the national meeting of delegates.
Critics say that parties don't address the issues, fail to deliver on their promises, follow public opinion rather than lead it, or are just one more special interest.
Most people understand that parties are necessary.
Party labels should be on the ballot for congressional, presidential, and statewide elections.
Most voters think of themselves as Democrats or Republicans, and usually vote for candidates from their party.
Millions of dollars are contributed to the two major parties by the ey.
They understand that you can't run a big democracy without parties.
Most state parties are moderate in their policies and leadership.
To win presidential elections and congressional majorities, successful party leaders must be diplomatic.
To be elected and reelected, members of the House of Representatives have to appeal to a majority of the voters from their own district.
As more districts become "safe" for incumbents, the House has had fewer moderates and is prone to more partisan ideological battles than the Senate.
Political parties have rules, procedures, and organizational structure like other institutions of government.
Both parties have strengthened the role of the national committee in recent years.
The committees are more representative of the rank of the party.
The national committee is the center of party leadership in neither party.
The national committee for mally chooses the chair, but it is the choice of the presidential nominee.
The chair of the White House is owned by the party that controls it.
The chairs of the party are often changed after an election.
The RNC was chaired by a man who was successful in leading the Wisconsin GOP in 2010 and was seen as a leader who could work with the Tea Party.
Every four years the political parties draft a document stating the policy for other House Democrats.
The process was criticized by the media and some opponents.
During the ders disputes among fellow partisans, but is rarely an election issue and often nomination period when the focus is on the Republicans because President Obama is written to avoid controversy.
The national party committee is usually neutral when there is no incumbent president seeking reelection.
The two candidate campaigns along with allied party and interest group partners did most of the voter Mobilization in 2012 Romney/Ryan relied on a set of joint "victory" campaign organizations in battleground states funded by the presidential campaign and the RNC.
Compared to the Romney/RNC operation, the 2012 Obama camplaign built a voter operation that was twice as large, with more staff, and more volunteers.
Both sides used computer models to predict which people would vote.
Democrats rely on allied groups like unions, environmentalists, and pro-choice groups to get the vote out.
There are also national congressional and senatorial campaign committees.
The committees work to recruit candidates, train them, make limited contributions to them, and spend independently in some of the most competitive contests.
The National Republican Senatorial Committee and Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee are led by senators who have been elected to two-year terms in the Senate.
The chairs of campaign committees are usually nominated by their party leadership.
Policy goals are important, even though national party committees are primarily used to win elections and gain control of government.
Each party has a platform adopted at the national convention.
A vague and ponderous statement of party policy is often the result of many meetings and compromises between groups and individuals.
Voters don't have many reasons to vote against the party because of the ambiguous platforms.
Platform positions can hurt a presidential candidate.
Presidential candidates can disagree with their party platform because the nominee doesn't always control the platform-writing process.
The platform-drafting process gives partisans an opportunity to express their views, and generally the nominee through people he or she appoints.
The values and principles that the parties are based on are spelled out.
Politicians rarely remind themselves of their platform position after being elected.
The winning party wants to implement much of its platform.
He was forced to eat at the convention.
Two major parties are not centralized.
State and local levels are similar to the national level.
State law regulates the state committees.
Local areas are where members of state committees are elected.
The trend is toward stronger state organizations with Republicans being better funded.
Some states have third and fourth parties.
New York has a Conservative Party in addition to the Democratic and Republican parties.
Even though minor parties rarely win statewide elections, the role they play can be important.
The committees recruit candidates for the positions of sheriff, county commis sioner, and treasurer.
The candidate for the offi ce should not be decided on by other candidates.
For a party that rarely wins an election, the county committee has to struggle to find someone willing to run.
When the chance of winning is greater, the winner's organizations are usually more active, distributing literature, organizing telephone campaigns, putting up posters and door-to-door campaigning.
The other county committees do not function at all.
The operation of the government is done by political parties.