The cell theory states that living organisms are made of cells, cells are the basic living units of organization, and all cells come from preexisting cells.
The plasma membrane is a membrane that surrounds all cells. The plasma membrane acts as a selective barrier.
Organelles are the internal structures of cells that are specialized with specific functions.
Cell size and shape are directly related to the function of the cell.
Light microscopes are used to study living cells.
Magnification is the size of the image seen compared to the actual size of the object.
Resolution or resolving power is the capacity to discern fine detail in an image.
Fluorescence microscopy identifies the locations of specific molecules.
Electron microscopes give a high-resolution image that can be magnified.
Transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope are artificially colored to highlight structures in the specimen.
Cell fractionation is the process of separating different parts of cells so they can be studied physically and chemically.
Differential centrifugation is the separation of cell components.
Prokaryotic cells are bacteria and archaea. Prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells. DNA is located in the nuclear area or nucleoid. Prokaryotic cells have a plasma membrane, cell wall (most), flagella, ribosome, capsule, fimbriae, and a storage granule.
All other organisms consist of one or more eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane, cytosol (cytoplasm), and various organelles.
The nucleus is where most of the cell’s DNA is located. The nucleus contains the nucleolus and chromosomes.
The nuclear envelope separates the nuclear contents from the cytoplasm.
Nuclear pores are the result of the membranes coming together.
Genes are units of hereditary information.
The nucleus controls protein synthesis by transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA) which are then moved to the cytoplasm where proteins are created by ribosomes.
Chromatin is an unraveled condensed structure of DNA.
Chromosomes are DNA that is packed together, is composed of chromatin, and contains genes that give the structure of a cell.
The nucleolus is the site for RNA synthesis.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized in the nucleolus.
Ribosomes synthesize polypeptides in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification, and calcium storage.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum creates proteins.
The Golgi complex modifies, packages, and sorts proteins.
Lysosomes have enzymes that break down ingested materials.
Vacuoles store wastes, water, and material.
Peroxisomes break down fatty acids.
Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell, creates energy.
Plastids (chloroplasts) are the site of photosynthesis.
Microtubules provide structural support for the cell and aid in cell division and movement.
Cilia, flagella, centioles.
Microfilaments provide structural support and aid in cell division and movement.
Intermediate filaments stabilize the shape of the cell.
Mitotic spindles form between centrioles that help aid in animal cell division.
Cilia help move unicellular organisms.
Flagella aids in cell locomotion by sperm cells.
The glycocalyx is a cell coat formed by proteins and lipids. It is a part of the plasma membrane.
The extracellular matrix contains carbohydrates, fibrous proteins, collagen which forms tough fibers, and fibronectins which organizes the matrix.
Integrins are receptor proteins that maintain the adhesion between the extracellular matrix and the intermediate filaments and microfilaments inside the cell.
The middle lamella causes cells to hold tightly together.