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4.3 Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
The pyruvate molecule is converted into a glucose molecule.
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
The pyruvate molecule produced at the end of glycolysis is transported into the mitochondria, which are sites of cellular respiration.
Aerobic respiration will go forward if oxygen is available.
pyruvate will be transformed into a two-carbon acetyl group by removing a molecule of carbon dioxide, which will be picked up by a carrier compound called CoA.
The major function of Acetyl CoA is to deliver the acetyl group from pyruvate to the next pathway.
Before entering the citric acid cycle, Pyruvate is converted into acetyl-CoA.
The last part of the pathway regenerates the compound used in the first step of the citric acid cycle.
The eight steps of the cycle are a series of chemical reactions that produce two carbon dioxide molecules, oneATP molecule and reduced forms of NAD+ and FAD+ in the cell.
The NADH and FADH2 produced must transfer their electrons to the next pathway in the system in order to be considered an aerobic pathway.
This transfer doesn't happen if oxygen isn't present.
There are two carbon atoms in the citric acid cycle.
Two carbon dioxide molecules are released on each turn of the cycle, but they don't have the same carbon atoms that are contributed by the acetyl group on that turn of the pathway.
The two acetyl-carbon atoms will eventually be released on later turns of the cycle; in this way, all six carbon atoms from the original glucose molecule will be eventually released as carbon dioxide.
The cycle takes two turns to process the equivalent of one molecule.
The last part of aerobic respiration will be connected to these high-energy carriers.
Each cycle has an equivalent made.
The cycle of the citric acid is both catabolic and anabolic due to the use of several intermediate compounds.
You've just read about two pathways in the process of catabolism.
The aerobic catabolism of glucose does not generate most of the ATP generated.
It derives from a process that begins with passing electrons through a series of chemical reactions to a final electron acceptor.
The reactions take place in the inner and outer parts of the cell.
The energy of the electrons is used to generate electricity.
The potential energy is used to generate something.
Oxygen diffuses into plants.
A bucket brigade is a series of chemical reactions in which electrons are passed rapidly from one component to the next, where oxygen is the final electron acceptor and water is produced.
There are multiple copies of the electron transport chain in the inner and outer chondrites.
When an electron is transferred through the electron transport chain, it loses energy, but with some transfers, the energy is stored as potential energy and can be used to make electricity.
The electron transport chain has a component called cytochrome c oxidase.
The electrons from FADH2 are sent to the electron transport chain.
The electrons lose energy when they are passed from one complex to another, and some of that energy is used to pump hydrogen ion from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space.
The electrons are accepted by the terminal acceptor.
The oxygen with its extra electrons combined with two hydrogen ion to form water.
The entire electron transport chain would stop if there was no oxygen in thechondrion.
The cell would die from lack of energy if the mitochondria were able to generate newATP in this way.
This is the reason we have to breathe.
In the electron transport chain, the free energy from the series of reactions is used to make hydrogen ion.
The H+ ion's positive charge and their higher concentration on one side of the membranes establishes an electrochemical gradient.
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