Both Jahangir and Shah Jahan continued Akbar's policy of tolerance toward the Hindu majority and retained most of the alliances he had forged with Hindu princes and local leaders.
They fought their wars in the same way as the founding of the dynasty did, despite the fact that they had little attempt to change the administrative apparatus they had inherited from Akbar.
Both campaigns were mounted to crush enemies and enlarge the empire.
Enjoying the good life was more important than conquest and politics.
Both were fond of drink, female dancers and the pleasure gardens they had laid out.
The paintings and History in Mughal India were similar to China and the great Muslim kingdoms with larger armies and resources than any state in the empire of Asia and Africa.
The gunpowder revolution changed the nature of warfare in Africa and Asia as well as the political power of the Spanish and Portuguese in the Early Modern era.
As the Iberians and northern Europeans sought to establish trading later, the Dutch, English, and French were able to build warehouses and fortify settlements, as well as pursue efforts to convert local populations.
The two engravings of an Indian woman about to be immolated miniatures reproduced here can tell us a lot about her husband's funeral pyre.
There are cross-cultural encounters.
Shah Jahan, the Mughal emperor, received homage and tribute from the foreign emissaries.
Europeans in the lower lefthand side of the painting have more power over the Mughals in the upper lefthand side of the painting.
Portuguese in the lower lefthand side of the painting have less power over the Mughals in the upper lefthand side of the painting.
What can we learn about the trading center?
The World Shrinks court ceremonies that blended Indian and Persian precedents, lavish state processions, their palaces and jewel- studded wardrobes, and the scented and sweetened ices that were rushed from the cool mountains in the north to their capitals on the planet.
Two of the greatest patrons of the fine arts in human history were Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
They expanded the painting workshops that had been started by the early Mughals so that thousands of exquisite miniature paintings could be produced during their reigns.
Some of the most stunning architectural works of all time were built by Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
The audience hall in the Red Fort at Delhi, Akbar's tomb at architectural achievement of Mughal Sikandra, and the tomb of Itimad al-dowleh at Agra are all examples of structures that are better than India.
The most famous of which is the marble reflecting pools that mirror the beauty of the Taj Mahal.
The rippling water gave life to the stone plant forms.
Like the architects and artisans of the Ottoman empire and the Safavid Persia, those who served the Mughal rulers wanted to create paradise on earth, an aspiration that was carved in marble on the audience hall of the Red Fort at Delhi.
"If there is paradise on earth, it is here" is written on the ceiling of the great hall.
The Taj Mahal symbolizes Indian civilization more than any other building.
The tomb built in Shah Jahan's honor provides an enduring source of aesthetic delight.
There are flowers and geometric designs on the marble of the tomb.
The carved marble screens on the windows of the central chamber add a sense of delicacy to the structure.
Two rulers who were absorbed in the arts and the pursuit of pleasure left most of the mundane tasks of day-to-day administration to their subordinates.
Most of the later years of Jahangir's reign were dominated by a group of male relatives who didmi and her group.
During the big spender of the Mughal empire, there was more than just pomp and luxury.
She was a major patron of charities during Jahangir's reign.
The Wife of Shah Jahan was more able to rule than Jahangir, and thus her opportunities to rule were more limited.
She was entombed in the Taj Mahal for the love and devotion Shah Jahan bestowed upon her, a love that is still felt today.
Shah Jahan's plan to build a tomb for himself in black marble across the Jumna River was derailed by his sons' revolt and his imprisonment.
He was buried next to his wife in the Taj Mahal, but her tomb is much larger than that of her husband.
The position of women at the Mughal court improved in the middle years of the dynasty's power, but that of women in the rest of Indian society declined.
The age limit for child marriage was lowered.
It was not uncommon for girls to be married at a young age.
Hindus nearly died out due to widow remarriage.
Upper-caste women, both Hindu and Muslim, were more and more excluded.
Muslim women who ventured out from their homes risked verbal and physical abuse.
The governor of one of the provinces of the Mughal empire divorced his wife because she was seen scrambling for her life, unveiled from a runaway elephant.
Despite Shah Jahan's renewed efforts to outlaw it, the practice of sati spread among upper-caste Hindus.
The birth of a girl was seen as an inauspicious event due to the diminishing scope of productive roles left to women and the burden of the dowry that had to be paid to marry them off.
The birth of a son was celebrated at court and in the homes of ordinary villagers.