Chapter 14 -- Part 2: Europe and Western Asia in the Middle Ages
They entered the city after opening it.
They climbed the tower with their ropes.
When more than 500 of them were in the city, they sounded their trumpets.
The Franks were able to slaughter all the Muslims they found in the city because of this.
The Franks were able to overrun the country because of the Muslim princes' differences.
Over the course of several decades, Fulcher wrote a long and influential chronicle.
The Franks entered the city at noon on the day that Christ redeemed the world on the Cross.
They raised a banner in the city on top of the wall.
They ran as fast as they could into the city and joined their friends in killing their enemies.
Your feet would have been stained with blood if you had been there.
None of them were alive when they died.
Women and children were not spared.
They entered the houses of the citizens and took whatever they found.
Whoever first entered a house, rich or poor, was not challenged by any other Frank.
Many poor people became wealthy.
Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani was a Persian scholar who served as secretary to Saladin and accompanied him on many of his military campaigns.
Saladin moved forward to take the reins of Jerusalem.
The Sultan mounted catapults and milked the udders of slaughter.
Words of prayer and invocation to God were on every tongue, as great joy reigned for the brilliant victory won.
The Franks began selling their possessions.
They shook the dust of their heritage when they carried away the most precious and lightest objects.
Use the sources above, along with what you have learned in class and in this chapter, to write a short essay analyzing Christian and Muslim views of the Crusades.
The University of California Press published it.
The Crusades testified to the religious enthusiasm of the High Middle Ages and the influence of the papacy, gave kings and the pope opportunities to expand their bureaucracy, and provided an outlet for nobles' dreams of glory.
Eastern luxury goods were introduced to Europeans by the Crusades.
The opening of new trade routes and the establishment of trading communities in the Crusader states gave Italian merchants a boost.
The Crusades had negative socio political consequences.
They were a disaster for Jewish-Christian relations.
Christian armies on their way to Jerusalem on the First Crusade joined with local mobs to attack Jewish families and communities.
Jews were accused of murdering Christians to use their blood in religious rituals during the later Crusades.
Legal restrictions on Jews increased throughout Europe.
Jews were forbidden to have Christian servants or employees, to hold public office, to appear in public on Christian holy days, or to enter Christian parts of town without a Badge marking them as Jews.
They were not allowed to trade with Christians except for moneylending and were banned from England and France.
The long-term cultural legacy of the Crusades may have been more powerful than the short-term impact.
The ideal of a sacred mission to conquer or convert Muslim peoples entered some Europeans' consciousness and was later used in other situations.
The beginning of a long trajectory of Western attempts to limit or destroy Islam can be traced back to when Christopher Columbus sailed west and used the language of the Crusades in his diaries.
The intellectuals described Christian society as consisting of those who pray, those who fight, and those who work.
The model doesn't fully describe medieval society because there were degrees of wealth and status within each group.
The model excludes those who were not Christian, such as Jews, Muslims, and pagans, and it doesn't take townspeople into account.
The fact that each of the groups was made up of both women and men was ignored by those who used the model.
The model of the three categories was a powerful mental construct despite the limitations.
We can use it to organize our investigation of life in the Middle Ages, broadening it to include groups and issues that medieval authors did not.
The men and women who worked the land in medieval Europe made up more than 90 percent of the population, as they did in China, India, and other parts of the world where agriculture dominated.
The daily lives of these peasants were not affected by the evolution of systems of authority into more centralized states.
Medieval theologians lumped everyone who worked the land into the category of those who work, but in fact there were many levels of peasants, ranging from slaves to free and sometimes very rich farmers.
Most peasants in western Europe were required to stay in the village and work on the lord's land.
Fees were often charged on common occurrences, such as marriage or inheritance of property.
Serfdom is a hereditary condition.
Those who took on this extra work were able to reduce their manorial obligations and improve their social and legal conditions.
In this scene from a German manuscript written about 1190, men and women of different ages are sowing seeds.
The residents of the village are involved in agricultural tasks.
In the Middle Ages most European peasants were free and unfree and lived in family groups in small villages that were part of a manor.
The manor was the center of rural life.
In the manors of western and central Europe, villages were made up of small houses for individual families, a church, and perhaps the large house of the lord, surrounded by land farmed by the villagers.
Peasant households included one married couple, their children, and perhaps one or two other relatives, such as a grandparent or an unmarried aunt.
In southern and eastern Europe, extended families were more likely to live in the same household.
Between one-third and one-half of children died before they were five years old.
The peasants' work was usually divided into genders.
Men and boys were responsible for clearing new land, plowing, and caring for large animals, while women and girls were responsible for the care of small animals, spinning, and food preparation.
Both sexes worked in vineyards and prepared crops for use in the textile industry.
Women bake bread in a large oven, using a long wooden paddle to insert the loaves, just as modern pizza bakers do.
Medieval families cooked in pots and on spits over fires in their homes, but rarely had ovens because of the danger of fire.
Beer or ale was another staple of the medieval diet, but instead they bought bread.
bread was the mainstay of the diet for peasants everywhere.
Peasants ate vegetables, but animals were too valuable to be used for food on a regular basis, and weaker animals were often slaughtered in the fall, and their meat was preserved with salt and eaten on great feast days such as Christmas and Easter.
The universal drink of common people was a drink called a alem, and it provided calories and some relief from the hard labor that filled people's lives.
All aspects of medieval culture were influenced by the nobility.
Nobles paid little taxes and had power over the people on their lands.
They protected their dependents from attacks.
The officials were appointed to oversee agricultural production.
The liberty and privileges of the noble were perpetuated by blood and not by wealth alone.
The nobles' primary obligation was warfare, just as it was for nobles among the Mexica and samurai in Japan.
On important occasions, nobles were required to attend the lord's court.
Chivalry was a code of conduct in which fighting to defend the Christian faith and protecting one's countrymen was declared to have a sacred purpose.
Bravery, generosity, honor, graciousness, mercy, and eventually gallantry toward was an ideal, not a standard pattern of behavior, which created a new standard of masculinity for nobles.
A code of conduct was supposed to govern the behavior of a knight.
The functioning of the estate was done by Noblewomen.
They were in charge of the household's "inner economy", which included cooking, brewing, spinning, weaving, and caring for yard animals.
The lord's wife became the sole manager of the family properties when he was away.
If she became a widow, the responsibilities of the estate became permanent.
In courtly love poetry, the writer praises his or her love object, idealizing the beloved and promising loyalty.
The majority of these songs are written by a male lover who is socially beneath his female beloved, so that he can remain chaste and pure, rewarded by her handkerchief, or perhaps a kiss, but nothing more.
In the Muslim culture of the Iberian Peninsula, heterosexual romantic love had long been the subject of poems and songs.
Spanish Muslim poets sang at the courts of Christian nobles, while Provencal poets picked up on romantic themes.
Some aspects of courtly love are debated.
It is difficult to say whether courtly love literature influenced the treatment of real women, but it did introduce a new ideal of heterosexual romance into Western literature.
Courtly love ideals still shape romantic conventions, and often appear in movies, songs, and novels that explore love between people of different social groups.
The poem was written by Arnaut Daniel, a troubadour praised by poets from Dante in the 13th to the 20th century.
His songs capture courtly love conventions perfectly, but not much is known about him.
I only know the grief that comes to me, since my will is so firm and whole that it never parted or grew distant from her whom I wanted at first sight, and now, in her absence.
I think she has what it takes.
If my heart can't reveal itself without words, she won't know them from me, since even the Rhone River has no such rush that my heart doesn't.
It seems false and ill to me, since no worthy one can compare with her, and her company is above the others'.
I have liked game or ball so much that it has given my heart so much joy, as well as the one thing that no false slanderer made public, which is a treasure for me only.
I don't say anything to annoy you unless she is displeased: beautiful one, by God, speech and voice, I would lose my voice.
If you like the music and lyrics, little cares if the unpleasant ones like them as well.
The song was written in the 12th century.
I regret his jilting, but his love never returned.
I'm dressed or in my bed.
My breast was being used for cushion.
I want you here in my husband's place, if you will just keep your promise and give me everything I want.
There are two songs that focus on a beloved who doesn't return the lover's affection.
Reproduced with permission of Garland Publishing, Inc., in the format Republish in a book via Copyright Clearance Center.
The rise of towns and the growth of a new business class were central to Europe's recovery after the disorders of the tenth century.
A rise in population, increased agricultural output, and adequate food supply for new town dwellers were some of the factors that contributed to this growth.
In 1100 the largest cities in Europe were most likely Constantinople and Cordoba, each with hundreds of thousand of residents.
Paris had 50,000 residents and London 20,000.
Towns in western and eastern Europe and China were usually enclosed by walls.
Most towns were first established as trading centers, with a marketplace in the middle and a court for resolving disputes.
Residents bargained with lords to make the town politically independent, which gave them the right to hold legal courts, select leaders, and set taxes.
Townspeople tried to get liberties for themselves.
A person who lived in a town for a year and a day and was accepted by the townsfolk was free of status and obligations.
serfs who fled their manors for towns were free of personal labor obligations.
The decline of serfdom in western Europe was caused by the growth of towns.
Merchants were the most powerful group in most towns, and they were often organized into merchant guilds, which prevented nonmembers from trading, pooled members' risks, monopolized city offices, and controlled the economy of the town.
The number of apprentices and journeymen affiliated with the guild made towns centers of the price of goods produced.
Women were often employed in guild shops without official membership.
The quality, quantity, and price of goods are regulated by associations of artisans.
The production of products in the homes of artisans takes place on the ground floor.
The family lived above the business.
There were more stories added as the business and family grew.
Most medieval towns and cities didn't have a lot of planning.
Every year, horses and oxen dropped tons of dung on the streets.
It was common in the early towns to dump household waste into the road in front of one's house.
People wanted to get into medieval towns because they represented opportunities for economic advancement, social mobility, and improvement in legal status, despite the unpleasant aspects of urban life.
The revival of trade was a result of the growth of towns.
They began to pool their money to finance trading expeditions, sharing the profits and also sharing the risks.
Italian cities, especially Venice, led the West in trade in general and completely dominated trade with Asia and North Africa, becoming much larger urban communities in the process.
New methods of accounting and record keeping were developed by merchants from Florence and Milan.
The towns of Bruges, Ghent, and Ypres in Flanders were leaders in long-distance trade and built up a vast industry in the manufacture of cloth, aided by ready access to wool from England.
The development of cloth manufacture in England was encouraged by the availability of raw wool.
The Hanseatic League is a mercantile association of towns formed to achieve mutual security and exclusive trading rights.
Two hundred cities from Holland to Poland joined the league in the 13th century.
Hanseatic merchants in London and Bruges were able to trade at local fairs because of special concessions.
Foreign trading centers were established by Hanseatic merchants.
The commercial revolution, which began in the eleventh century, added up to what historians of Europe have called the commercial revolution, a direct parallel to the economic revolution going on in Song Dynasty China at the increase in the sheer volume of trade and in the sophistication and complexity of business procedures.
There is a "capitalist spirit" in which making a profit is seen as a good thing.
The economic structure of Europe began to change in the eleventh century from a rural, manorial society to a more complex mercantile society.
The commercial revolution created a lot of new wealth, which was of interest to rulers.
King could create strong and centralized states by taxing wealth.
In Roman times, Europeans saw products from Africa and Asia in city marketplaces.
Thousands of serfs in western Europe were able to improve their social position because of the commercial revolution.
In the High Middle Ages, the towns that became centers of trade and production became cultural and intellectual centers.
A new type of educational institution -- the university -- emerged when trade brought in new ideas as well as merchandise.
New forms of architecture and literature appeared as universities appeared.
Since the time of the Carolingian Empire, monasteries and cathedral schools have only offered formal instruction.
In the eleventh century in Bologna and other Italian cities, wealthy businessmen established municipal schools, and in the twelfth century municipal schools in Italy and France and Spain became larger universities.
There was a revival of interest in Roman law as a result of the growth of the University of Bologna.
In the eleventh century, scholars discovered a complete manuscript of the code in a library in northern Italy, which led to the revival of the study of Roman law in the West.
There was interest in medicine for hundreds of years at the Italian city of Salerno.
There were Greek and Muslim physicians who had studied the use of herbs.
There was a new interest in the work of Arab and Greek doctors in the 12th century.
The basis of training for physicians at other medieval universities was created from the ideas from this medical literature.
University training gave physicians high social status and allowed them to charge high fees, although their diagnoses and treatments were not based on interactions with patients.
In this illustration from a history of France made about 1400, students with somewhat dour expressions take notes while their professor lectures from a book.
In the first decades of the 12th century, students from all over Europe crowded into the cathedral school of Notre Dame in Paris to study theology.
They developed a method of thinking, reasoning, and writing in which questions were raised and authorities cited on both sides of a question.
The goal of the method was to give a rational explanation for what was believed to be faith.
Medieval professors developed a method of thinking, reasoning, and writing in which questions were raised and authorities cited on both sides of a question.
Peter Abelard was one of the most famous Scholastics.
He used a method of systematic doubting in his writing.
He was popular with students despite being censured by a church council.
In the 13th century, the Scholastics devoted a lot of time to collecting and organizing knowledge.
These collections were published as reference books.
Students living in private residential colleges were considered to be lower-level members of the clergy so that they were not tried in the city courts.
University education was restricted to men because of this clerical status.
The lecture was the standard method of teaching at all universities.
The professor can use this method to read a passage from the Bible.
He interpreted the passage.
When a student applied for a degree, they had to take exams after three, four, or five years of study.
The first bachelor's degree was awarded to the candidate if he passed.
The graduate was able to try for the master's and doctor's degrees.
There were degrees that could be used to teach.
Most students didn't become teachers.
The royal and papal administrations were staffed by them.
Religious devotion was expressed through rituals and institutions, but people also wanted permanent visible representations of their piety, and both church and city leaders wanted physical symbols of their wealth and power.
The building of tens of thousands of churches, chapels, abbeys, and cathedrals gave these aims their outlet.
This view shows the twin towers, the spire, the great rose window over the south portal, and the flying buttresses that support the walls and the vaults.
It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, like hundreds of other churches in Europe.
Notre Dame was the tallest building in Europe at the time it was built.
Romanesque architecture was used in the tenth and eleventh century to build cathedrals that featured large walls, rounded stone arches, and small windows.
A new artistic and architectural style spread out from central France in the twelfth century.
It was called by Renaissance architects.
Gothic architecture's basic features, such as pointed arches, high ceilings, and exterior supports called flying buttresses, allowed for unprecedented interior light.
The stone had windows cut into it.
In France alone, between 1180 and 1270, eighty cathedrals, about five hundred abbey churches, and tens of thousands of parish churches were built.
They are testimony to the deep religious faith and piety of medieval people and also to the civic pride of urban residents, for towns competed with one another to build the largest and most splendid cathedral.
The cathedral was designed to show the lives of the artisans and merchants who paid for it, as well as the statuary, paintings, and stained-glass windows, which were meant to teach the people the doctrine of Christian faith.
The architectural and artistic style that began in Europe in the twelfth century featured pointed arches, high ceilings, and flying buttresses.
Latin was used in works of literature.
No one spoke Latin as their first language by the High Middle Ages.
The barbarian invasions, the mixture of peoples, and the usual changes in language resulted in a variety of local dialects that blended words and linguistic forms in various ways.
In the High Middle Ages, some authors left tradition and began to write in their local dialect, which linguistic historians call the vernacular.
Some local dialects were transformed into literary languages, such as French, German, Italian, and English, while other local dialects remained means of oral communication.
French, German, Italian, and English were written in the everyday language of the region.
The courts of nobles and rulers were where the stories and songs were performed.
In Provence in southern France, poets who called themselves troubadours wrote and sang lyrics celebrating love, desire, beauty, and gallantry.
The development of vernacular literature in Italy, England, and Germany was spurred by the fact that a few women were included in the Troubadours.
Derived from the church's liturgy, drama emerged as a distinct art form.
The plays were performed in the towns, first in churches and then at the marketplace, based on biblical themes and the lives of the saints.
The plays gave ordinary people an opportunity to identify with religious figures and think about their faith.
Many people, not just nobles, had books, but also romances, manuals, and sometimes legal and philosophical texts.
A response to the needs of a complex society is represented by the spread of literacy.
Climate change, economic decline, plague, war, social upheaval, and increased crime and violence were some of the shocks that Europeans experienced between 1300 and 1450.
Death and preoccupation with death made the fourteenth century one of the most wrenching periods of history in Europe and western Asia.
Its effects were very bad.
Poor harvests led to scarcity and starvation in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Grain, livestock, and dairy products cost more.
Peasants were forced to sell or mortgage their lands for money to buy food, and the number of homeless people increased, as a result of a terrible famine that took place between 1315 and 1322.
A new disease called the (Map 14.3) was introduced in 1347 to deal a blow to an under nourished population.
The symptoms of this disease were first described in 1331 in Central Asia by way of armies and merchant caravans arriving in the ports of the Black Sea.
Within a year it was in Mecca, Damascus, Genoa, and Venice.
One third of Europe's population was killed by the plague in 1347.
As the plague spread across Europe, it followed trade routes.
Some cities that took strict precautions were spared.
Usually the disease is limited to rats and other rodents, but at certain points in history the fleas have jumped from their rodent hosts to humans and other animals.
The disease had terrible effects on the body, including growths in the body, bleeding under the skin, and violent coughing and spitting blood, which were followed by death in two or three days.
The Black Death was thought to be caused by poisons orcorrupted air that carried the disease from place to place.
They tried to keep poisons out of the body by using strong smelling herbs and bloodletting.
They did penance and prayed.
Many people believed that the Black Death was God's punishment for humanitwicked when shirtless men and women who whipped themselves as penance for their asins walked through the Flemish city of Tournai.
Historians estimate that the plague killed about one third of the population, with some places suffering even higher total English population of 4.2 million.
Italy has a lot of incredible losses.
Florence lost between one-half and two-thirds of its population to the plague.
The disease reappeared in Europe in the early 1700s.
The economic effects of the plague were severe in the short term.
Some people sought release in wild living, while others turned to the severest forms of asceticism and frenzied religious fervor.
Relatives stayed far apart and almost no one cared for his neighbor.
This disaster had struck such fear into the hearts of men and women that brother abandoned brother, uncle abandoned nephew, sister left brother, and very often wife abandoned husband, and -- even worse, almost unbelievable -- fathers and mothers neglected to tend and care for their children as if they were not their
People died as if the whole strength of the city were seized by sudden death when grievous pestilence penetrated the coastal regions of England.
Few people lay in their beds for more than three days or two and half days, but that savage death snatched them about the second day.
The king renewed the statute at this time and ordered that reapers and other labourers should not receive more than they were accustomed to receive.
The labourers were so arrogant and hostile that if anyone wanted to hire them, he had to pay them what they wanted, and either lose his fruits and crops or satisfy the arrogant and greedy desire of the labourers as they were.
Those who received day-work from their tenants throughout the year had to release them and send the money to serfs.
They either had to excuse them entirely or had to fix them in a way that would not cause great damage to the buildings and the land around them.