Hungary was on the losing side in World War I and was invaded by Romania at the end of the war and ruled by the Soviet republic between March and August 1919.
When antiCommunist forces regained control of Budapest in August, they were deemed a fitting response to the red terror that had prevailed in the previous months.
The white terror hit Jews particularly hard because the Communist leaders of the Hungarian Soviet regime were almost entirely of Jewish origin.
Hungary was notorious for its antisemitism during the interwar years.
The Paris Peace Conference took seriously the danger that national and religious minorities might be treated unfairly in the newly created nation-states.
The treaties establishing the new nations were tacked on to safeguard minority rights in the constitutions of the new states.
The leaders of the new nation-states resented the minority treaties for being an unfair limitation of their national sovereignty and an insult to their dignity.
The Americans, British, and French wouldn't have consented to similar treaties in regards to their own minorities.
The double standard was justified by reference to the backward nature of the populations in the new nation-states, which in turn inflamed the resentments of the leaders of these new nations.
The treatment of minorities in France and the United States was not a point that the leaders of those countries were willing to consider relevant to issues in the 1919 treaties.
The minority treaties were far-reaching.
They gave national minorities the right to use their own languages in official relations with the state, as well as recognizing them as independent corporate bodies.
They were given the right to establish separate primary schools in their own languages, but with financial support from the state.
In their own countries, the Americans, British, and French have not historically recognized such extensive corporate minority rights.
They insisted that their minority populations conform to national ideals, particularly in attending primary schools in their majority languages.
The minority treaties were important for Jews in the new nation-states.
Jewish delegations from Britain, France, and the United States collaborated to get the treaties approved, often themselves creating significant portions of the finally accepted texts, while making it quite clear that they did not support the idea of comparable measures to be introduced in their own countries.
Antisemitic observers cited these activities as proof that the Jews of all countries felt bound to one another, using money and connections in high places to forward their interests, often in stark opposition to the interests of non-Jews.
The League of Nations member nations were given the authority to rule over non- European areas that had been ruled by the Ottoman Empire and Germany.
The assertion of western-European cultural and political superiority was made clear with the minority treaties.
The leaders of the Paris Peace Conference seemed to think that the principle of national self-determination was unrealistic for non-European areas.
The document establishing the mandates stated that the populations of those areas were not yet able to stand on their own.
The populations needed a period of European rule to prepare them for self-government in the future.
During the war, British and French interests in the Middle East clashed, with both countries pursuing conflicting policies in regards to relations with the Arab populations of the Ottoman Empire.
Syria was taken over by France, and Britain took control of Palestine, as well as the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in an effort to resolve the conflicting policies of the League.
Palestine was initially thought to include territories east of the Jordan River, but in September 1922 Britain separated Transjordan from Palestine.
Provisions relating to Jewish settlement in Palestine, based on the Balfour Declaration, did not apply to Transjordan.
For a long time, the leaders of Zionism protested but in vain.
The area of the British Mesopotamian Mandate became an independent country in 1932, but the British retained military bases there.
Syria and Lebanon were established from the French mandate that lasted until 1943.
In 1946, Transjordan became an independent country.
Since the Holy Land is sacred to Christians and Muslims, the future of the British Palestinian Mandate posed a lot of problems.
Palestine was designated as the site of a national homeland for the Jews by the Balfour Declaration.
The League of Nations issued a document that established the Palestinian mandate under British rule.
Observers who had reservations about the wisdom of the Balfour Declaration in 1917 kept their doubts about the wisdom of attempting to settle large numbers of Europe's Jews in Palestine.
If an eventual Jewish nation-state was to be created for them, moving millions of Jews into the area would likely prejudice the rights of the existing Arab majority.
Critics doubted that Palestine could support the people of poverty and oppression who might migrate to it.
The people who predicted that Palestine would become a heavy burden were proven correct.
Other solutions to the Jewish Question were not more promising.
The Palestinian mandate's short-term prospects were viewed with skepticism, even though it was anyone's guess how it might develop after 1919.
The model of Palestine being turned into a state within a short period, as offered by Iraq, would have meant a Palestine with a large Jewish minority.
The idea of an Arab-majority Palestinian state in the future was opposed by the Zionists.
Their plan was to delay the creation of a Jewish state until enough Jews had moved to Palestine to form a majority, something that all agreed was likely to be a longterm project, and one that the Arabs of the area were not likely to welcome.