The United States rebelled against Nicholas Tsar I in December of 1925.
Napoleon had a policy of preventing trade between continental Europe and Great Britain.
One leg is relaxed and the other is heavy in the loss of colonies.
The years after World War II.
Reasoning from basic or known truths is the change from a premise.
The capitals of columns life are marked by Corinthian order.
The British imposed tariffs on grain imports.
The "free warriors" of southern Russia were conquerors in the sixth century B.C.E.
The term came from the cavalrymen.
Rural people in their cottages perform the general legislative assembly of certain countries.
The French Revolution years of the cultural movement.
The idea that human reason should determine industrial production into separate tasks was supported by the division of work in the modern process.
The political upheaval in France that had enough money to start to challenge the power of the patricians was caused by the unjust 1894 conviction of the Jewish army.
After the 1867 reform that granted Hungary equality the clergy, nobility, commoners, and all three meeting with Austria, representative assembly were made up of either monarchy.
Men over the age of 18 make up Athens.
Market was founded in 1957 to eliminate tariffs and begin based on sensory evidence to integrate the economies of western European nations.
Telegram from Prussia's head of state to that continued to take steps toward the full economic union of the French government.
There are separate parcels of farmland.
The artistic style that emphasized the objective expression of inner system consisted of a royal grant that allowed Spanish settlers to experience through the use of conventional characters and to compel indigenous peoples to work for them.
Spanish overseers were to encourage workers to convert to Christianity.
It was a brutal system of labor.
A late-nineteenth-century ruler applied Enlightenment ideas to British intellectuals that advocated the adoption of socialist government.
Gothic tribes were allowed to settle in the crown of England by the English Parliament in 1688.
The tribes became allies of Rome.
The power in Parliament was a part of England's constitution.
The Soviet State Planning Commission was charged with return for their service.
In ancient Rome, the central public place served windows and buttresses.
During the 17th and War I, the U.S. President's plan was to establish certain cities and sites to guarantee peace.
A group of German states met in 1848 to try to form a hierarchy of the universe.
The Mercenary soldiers of the Middle Ages and Renaissance were paid by whoever paid them.
There was a lot of panic caused by rumors that bands of brigands were called "free" to distinguish them from warriors who were on the loose in the French countryside during the summer.
The purges in paramilitary groups were done by the Communist Party.
Alexander II, the tsar of Russia, instituted reforms that included freeing Russia's serfs.
The royal government was threatened by a Byzantine naval weapon.
People who believe in a conservative interpretation of a religion.
An association of people of the same trade.
A large ship with sails and oars.
Shi'ites believe that the sun is the center of the universe.
The policy of extending a nation's authority came from a mythical King Hellen.
The fourth political control over other nations was related.
Orthodox church leaders consider a religious belief wrong.
In the 16th and 17th century, notion contained the divine Slavic, Greek, Iranian, and Indic groups.
General conclusions from concrete observations.
The papacy gave priests a certifi cate that allowed them to keep records.
During the second half of the twentieth century, the Alliance of Russia, Austria, and Prussia would manipulate information to safeguard the principles of Christianity.
The ancient Greeks brought excessive pride.
A deep study of classical culture and an emphasis on the Greeks to decorate their buildings led to the creation of one of three architectural systems.
Literature, history, and philosophy are humanities, which are taller and thinner than self-improvement.
The line between Eastern and Western France was created in 1337.
England lost its Europe during the Cold War.
The emotional experience of religious belief is stressed by a written symbol.
Chinese communists retreat from stockholders who may sell or transfer their shares individually.
There were machines that took jobs away from apprentices.
Two mounted knights are fighting with lances.
The Egyptians believe that faith alone is not good for the idea of truth and justice.
This belief is at the center of order and harmony.
There was a successful Jewish revolt in the second century B.C.E.
Japanese pilots wrote a short poem about their ships during World War II.
A bunch of defensive fortresses are clothed.
English barons forced man to sign the Great Charter.
Japanese governmental regulation of most economic affairs was reorganized.
A group of people begging for money rather than living in a monastery.
Hitler wanted to control and develop the national of expanding his empire to the east to gain more land for the economy and bring wealth into the national treasury.
From about 15,000 years ago to about 7000 B.C.E., women and children served the nation in the French.
During the English civil war, revolutionaries tried to level the social hierarchy.
piety and emotional worship were emphasized by a Protestant sect.
A lord in the feudal system has many centuries of experience.
The coast and the Americas are represented by an artistic technique.
They were found to be heretical.
The power in Russia was taken over by the Bolsheviks in 1917.
The high point of the political party was between 1400 and 1200 B.C.E.
The accused were to cultivate a deep connection with their deity in an ancient form of trial.
If the accused was innocent, Initiates exposed to physical dangers that were presumed to be harmless swore not to reveal the insights they had gained.
The shroud of secrecy resulted in the name hot pokers, trial by battle, and other "mystery" religions.
During and after the 1970s, there were states introduced by the legal code.
The importance of national identity and the nation-state was emphasized in the 19th and 20th century in Greece.
Rational laws of nature apply to the physical and human world.
The city of knowledge has a revolutionary government.
The House of particularly between 1880 and 1914 was part of Britain's legislature.
The ancient Roman aristocracy who populated philosophy based on the doctrine that the universal, or general, the Senate and were particularly powerful during the time period has no objective existence or validity.
Also known as New Nominalism.
The rule of Caesar agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada to Augustus began in 1994.
A principle states that Peter was the bishop of Rome.
Any branch of the Christian believed in the resurrection of the just and the existence of angels.
A method of Enlightenment was created by Sigmund Freud.
A symbol is used to represent a speech emotional disorders.
Puritans were forced to migrate to the American colonies.
The instrument was enacted to deal with the poor.
Refers to the people who studied astronomy after themselves.
To keep the status quo.
A late-twentieth-century approach to the arts emphasized multiple interpretations.
The international agreement secured by some races is superior to others.
An would succeed him.
The doctrine claims that God is able to solve problems.
The medieval Platonist philosophy believed that it was either saved or damned.
The salvation of any individual is determined by the individual objects we see.
Calvinists emphasize this doctrine.
A cultural style rejecting that another side was on the verge of attack is what War initiated by one side on the justifi cation the nineteenth century refers to.
Garibaldi's troops were used in Italy.
All aspects of the physical universe must be compared in relative terms.
The Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches valued the remnants of saints.
During the Cold War, Eastern European states touched sacred bodies that were associated with Jesus or the Soviet Union.
German military strategy in World appreciation of classical literature and War I called for a holding action against Russia while values.
It refers to the culture that was born in Italy during the time German forces moved through Belgium to destroy France.
German troops in conquered are helped to understand God's plan by the underground opposition to theological movement.
The desire to join faith European countries during World War II is also referred to.
The new sixteenth- and seventeenth of Napoleon hoped to keep the forces of the century in check or even return the clock to pre-revolutionary days.
The deliberative body has arches, barrel vaulted ceilings, and dark interiors.
During the half of the Composed of ex-magistrates with lifetime membership, there was a cultural ideology that stressed feeling over reason.
The black basalt was found at warfare and authorized public expenditures.
The work of 72 Palestinian Jews in the third century B.C.E.
was written on the stone.
They owed both labor and fees.
In some of the Muslim countries, it was not the majority party.
The twentieth-century Irish nationalist organization was brought about by rituals in Christianity.
Worship at the Temple in Jerusalem was emphasized by the Indians in the 19th century.
They are British.
Darwin's ideas could be found in the Torah.
Four administrative units used the method of arriving at truth.
The core to rule by divine authority was a Polish union.
Success alone is important as the overthrow things are relative.
Laws are created by a king or legislative body.
The twentieth-century form of authoritarian advocated the use of force, technology, and bureaucracy to effect indifference to pain.
There is a long, all-out struggle between patrician segments of society.
There are laws that restrict or fight from trenches.
The trade pattern between European nations used to separate the social classes.
People are protected from their rights by Adam Smith's liberal economic doctrine.
The Islamic regime that ruled military and economic aid to Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001 was strict and fundamentalist.
The French ring of containment around the Soviet Union and its satellite Estates General took an oath not to break up until they had created a state.
There was a military alliance in Eastern Europe.
The Twelve Tables was started in 1955 by the Soviet Union.
The belief in rule by the established at the end of World War I was destroyed by the Hitler monarch, as well as everything about the French Revolution in the 1930s.
Enlightenment was not in line with religion, order, and civilization.
Freud says that part of the mind of severe economic hardship is to provide basic social needs.
Actions or policies taken by one nation in its individuals that established the fee for compensation in case of own interests regardless of the views and interests of its allies.
During the 18th and 19th century, a British political party promoted peace and cooperation.
For example, "justice" or "Wittenagemot" is what the ancient Anglo-Saxon men described.
An independent Jewish state is a form of early creation.
When the Romans destroyed Jerusalem in 70 C.E., the sect was wiped out.
A noble in the feudal system binding himself to his temple.
After World War I, a peace treaty was signed to create an independent state for Jews in Germany.
The University of Pennsylvania Museo Nazionale Romano della Terme/ Spain/Granger Collection is located in NY.
The British Museum is in London.
Overall: The Bridgeman Art Library.
The Metropolitan p. 191: Pergamon Museum, Berlin, Germany.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art is the owner of the image Bridgeman Art Library.
The Vatican Museums, Vatican State/ p. 202, and the Metropolitan Government of Nashville, NY, p. 40.
The Villa of P. Fannius Synistor Resource is home to Alan Lequire.
The National Archaeological Museum, Piraeus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, were reproduced by the Syndics of Cambridge Greece/Nimatallah.
The Metropolitan University Library has a copy of the image.
The Art Resource, HistoryofScience.com, has an image source.
The album/art resource in NY is red-fi.
The actual Terracotta is 2.5 3 21.8 cm.
Madeleine, London, UK/Bridgeman Art Library.
The Villa of the CADW is a Welsh Historic Monument.
The final PDF was sent to the printer.
The Bridgeman Art Library is located in Paris, France.
The Metropolitan Museum wood panel was purchased with funds from the British Library.
The fundacion Coleccion Thyssen-Bornemisza has an art resource.
The Art Resource is in NY.
Oil on oak, Resource, NY.
Jan van Eyck was here 1434 according to the ornate Latin signature Lausanne/Gianni Dagli Orti/The Art Archive/Art Museum of Art, Marquand Collection.
The National Gallery, London is an oil on canvas.
The Bridgeman Art Library; p. 304: (c) Alinari Archives/ The Bridgeman Geographical Society.
The National Gallery is in London.
The Bridgeman Art Library has Franceso di All Rights Reserved.
The Musee des Beaux-Arts is in Dijon.
CHAPTER 1 THE ROOTS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION: THE ANCIENT MIDDLE EAST TO THE SIXTH CENTURY B.C.E. BEFORE WESTERN CIVILIZATION Out of Africa: The Paleolithic Period, 600,000-10,000 B.C.E. The Neolithic Period: The First Stirrings of Agriculture, 10,000-3000 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 1.1: Mesopotamia and Egypt, ca. 2000 B.C.E. STRUGGLING WITH THE FORCES OF NATURE: MESOPOTAMIA, ca. 3000-1000 B.C.E. The Origins of Western Civilization Life in a Sumerian City Gods and Goddesses of the River Valley The Development of Writing Laws and Justice Indo-Europeans: New Contributions in the Story of the West Hittites Establish Their Empire RULE OF THE GOD-KING: ANCIENT EGYPT, ca. 3100-1000 B.C.E. Prosperity and Order: The Old Kingdom, ca. 2700-2181 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 1.1: An Egyptian Nobleman Writes His Obituary Hieroglyphs: Sacred Writing GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Nubia: The Passage from the Mediterranean to the Heart of Africa Pyramids and the Afterlife THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 1.2: The Ancient Near East, ca. 1450 B.C.E. Changing Political Fortunes, ca. 2200-1570 B.C.E. Political Expansion: The New Kingdom, 1570-1085 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Egyptian Fresco, ca. 1295-1186 B.C.E. The Religious Experiment of Akhenaten, ca. 1377-1360 B. C.E. The Twilight of the Egyptian Empire, 1360-ca. 1000 B. C.E. BIOGRAPHY: Hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 B.C.E.) PEOPLES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST, CA. 1300-500 B.C.E. The Phoenicians: Traders on the Sea The People of the One God: Early Hebrew History, 1500-900 B.C.E. A Jealous God, 1300-587 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 1.2: King Solomon Secures His Realm's Fortune THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 1.3: Mediterranean Coast in the First Millennium B.C.E. Judaism in Exile TERROR AND BENEVOLENCE: THE GROWTH OF EMPIRES, 1200-500 B.C.E. The Age of Iron THINKING ABOUT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Smelting Metals: Making Bronze and Iron THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 1.4: The Assyrian Empire, ca. 662 B.C.E. Rule by Terror: The Assyrians, 911-612 B.C.E. Babylonian Rule, 612-539 B.C.E. Rule by Tolerance: The Persian Empire, ca. 550-330 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 1.5: The Persian Empire, ca. 500 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 1.3: Cambyses Conquers Egypt LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD THE WORLD & THE WEST: The Ancient World, 700 B.C.E.-400 C.E.
CHAPTER 2 CONTEST FOR EXCELLENCE: 2000-338 B.C.E. THE RISE AND FALL OF ANCIENT 2000-800 B.C.E. The Greek Peninsula The Minoans, 2000-1450 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 2.1: The World of the Greeks Mycenaean Civilization: The First Greeks, 2000-1100 B.C.E. From Dark Ages to Colonies THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 2.2: The Greek Colonies in About 500 B.C.E. EMERGING FROM THE DARK: HEROIC BELIEFS AND VALUES Heroic Values Preserved The Family of the Gods GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Transforming Science in Asia Minor Studying the Material World THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: A Warrior's Death: Suicide of Ajax, Athenian Vase, ca. 450 B.C.E. LIFE IN THE GREEK POLEIS The Invention of Politics The Heart of the Polis Fears and Attachments in Greek Emotional Life Athens: City of Democracy THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 2.1: Theseus Founds the City of Athens Sparta: A Military State The Love of the Contest: Olympic Games The Persian Wars, 490-479 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 2.3: The Persian Wars, 490-479 B.C.E. Herodotus: The Father of History GREECE ENTERS ITS CLASSICAL AGE, 479-336 B.C.E. Athens Builds an Empire, 477-431 B.C.E. Artistic Athens Greek Theater: Exploring Complex Moral Problems DESTRUCTION, DISILLUSION, AND A SEARCH FOR MEANING The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 2.2: A Playwright Reflects on the Meaning of Life THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 2.4: The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.E. BIOGRAPHY: Xanthippus, Son of Pericles Philosophical Musings: Athens Contemplates Defeat Tragedy and Comedy: Innovations in Greek Theater Hippocrates and Medicine The Aftermath of War, 404-338 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 2.3: Ten Thousand Greek Mercenaries Return Home LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 3 THE POLEIS BECOME COSMOPOLITAN: THE HELLENISTIC WORLD, 336-150 B.C.E. THE CONQUEST OF THE POLEIS Tribal Macedonia Philip II: Military Genius Death of the King Alexander's Conquests THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 3.1: Alexander's Empire A Young Ruler's Legacy THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 3.1: Alexander Restores Greek Exiles THE SUCCESSOR KINGDOMS, 323-ca. 100 B.C.E. Egypt Under the Ptolemies THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 3.2: The Successor States After the Death of Alexander, ca. 240 B.C.E. BIOGRAPHY: Arsinoe II (315-ca. 270 B.C.E.) The Seleucids Rule Asia Antigonids in Greece EAST MEETS WEST IN THE SUCCESSOR KINGDOMS Money in the New Cosmopolitan Economies Armies of the Hellenistic World A True Cultural Blending? Struggles and Successes: Life in the Cosmopolitan Cities THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 3.2: Cities Celebrate Professional Women Patronage, Planning, and Passion: Hellenistic Art Resistance to Hellenism: Judaism, 323-76 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 3.3: Judas Maccabeus Liberates Jerusalem THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH: HELLENISTIC THOUGHT, RELIGION, AND SCIENCE A Life of Learning Theater and Literature Cynics, Epicureans, and Stoics: Cosmopolitan Philosophy New Religions of Hope Hellenistic Science THINKING ABOUT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Finding One's Way at Sea: The Invention of Latitude and Longitude LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 4 PRIDE IN FAMILY AND CITY: ROME FROM ITS ORIGINS THROUGH THE REPUBLIC, 753-44 B.C.E. THE RISE OF ROME, 753-265 B.C.E. A Great City Is Founded THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 4.1: Italian Peninsula, ca. 700 B.C.E. The Etruscan Influence The Roman Monarchy, ca. 753-509 B.C.E. Governing an Emerging Republic, 509-287 B.C.E. Informal Governance: Patrons and Clients THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 4.1: The Power of Public Opinion Dominating the Italian Peninsula THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 4.2: Rome During the Republic FAMILY LIFE AND CITY LIFE THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 4.3: Italy, 265 B.C.E. A Pious, Practical People Loyalty to the Family The Challenges of Childhood Life in the City EXPANSION AND TRANSFORMATION, 265-133 B.C.E. The Romans' Victorious Army THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Trajan's Column Wars of the Mediterranean THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 4.4: Expansion of the Roman Republic, 264-44 B.C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 4.2: Hannibal Triumphs at the Battle of Cannae An Influx of Slaves Economic Disparity and Social Unrest BIOGRAPHY: Publius Terentius Afer (Terence) (ca. 190-159 B.C.E.) THE HELLENIZING OF THE REPUBLIC Roman Engineering: Fusing Utility and Beauty Concrete: A New Building Material Latin Comedy and the Great Prose Writers, 240-44 B.C.E. THE TWILIGHT OF THE REPUBLIC, 133-44 B.C.E. The Reforms of the Gracchi, 133-123 B.C.E. Populares vs. Optimates: The Eruption of Civil Wars, 123-46 B.C.E. Julius Caesar, 100-44 B.C.E. The Roman Republic Ends THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 4.3: Conspirators Assassinate Julius Caesar LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 5 TERRITORIAL AND CHRISTIAN EMPIRES: THE ROMAN EMPIRE, 31 B.C.E.-410 C.E. THE PAX ROMANA, 27 B.C.E.-180 C.E. Augustus Takes Power A New Form of Governing THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 5.1: Augustus Tallies His Accomplishments Challenges to the Principate, 69-193 C.E. THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 5.1: City of Rome During the Empire GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: China's Han Dynasty and the Silk Road THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 5.3: The Roman Empire, 44 B.C.E.-284 C.E. A Vibrant, Far-Flung Empire LIFE DURING THE PEACE OF ROME A New Decadence THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Wall Painting from a Baker's Shop in Pompeii, ca. 70 C.E. The Problem with Population Sexual and Medical Misunderstandings The Games THINKING ABOUT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Ancient Medicine: Bodies Out of Balance CRISIS AND TRANSFORMATION, 192-ca. 400 C.E. The Military Monarchy Ravaged by Recession, Inflation, and Plague The Reforms of Diocletian, 285-305 C.E. THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 5.2: Diocletian Becomes "Lord" THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 5.4: Diocletian's Division of the Empire, 304 C.E. The Capital Moves East THE LONGING FOR RELIGIOUS FULFILLMENT Stoicism and Platonism Mystery Cults The Four Faces of Judaism THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 5.5: Israel at the Time of Jesus The Jesus Movement Early Christian Communities FROM CHRISTIAN PERSECUTION TO THE CITY OF GOD, 64-410 C.E. Looking for Christian Scapegoats Constantine: The Tolerant Emperor THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 5.3: Titus Destroys Jerusalem The Empire Adopts Christianity THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 5.6: The Spread of Christianity to 311 C.E. The New Roman Asceticism and the Holy Dead BIOGRAPHY: Melania the Younger (385-ca. 439) LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD THE WORLD & THE WEST: Looking Ahead to the Middle Ages: 400-1400
CHAPTER 6 A WORLD DIVIDED: WESTERN KINGDOMS, BY ZANTIUM, AND THE ISLAMIC WORLD, CA. 376-1000 THE MAKING OF THE WESTERN KINGDOMS, ca. 376-750 Life in a German Clan and Family Germanic Clothing and Food Heroic Society Infiltrating the Roman Empire, 376-476 THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 6.1: Germanic Invasions, Fifth Century THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 6.1: The Huns Menace Rome Did Rome "Fall"? Rise and Fall of a Frankish Dynasty, ca. 485-750 Accomplishments and Destruction in Italy, ca. 490-750 The Visigoths in Spain, 418-711 The Growing Power of the Popes Monasteries: Peaceful Havens THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE, ca. 400-1000 Justinian and Theodora, r. 527-565 Constantinople: The Vibrant City THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Mosaics in San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, 548 THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 6.2: Justinian's Conquests, 554 THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 6.3: The Byzantine Empire, Eighth Century Military Might and Diplomatic Dealings Breaking Away from the West Converting the Slavs, 560-ca. 1000 ISLAM, 600-1000 The Prophet The Religion The Spread of Islam THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 6.4: The Expansion of Islam to 750 Creating an Islamic Unity THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 6.2: Christians Accept Caliph Umar's Terms The Gracious Life Forces of Disunity GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: Yemen: Monotheism Spreads to Southern Arabia Heirs to Hellenistic Learning THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 6.5: Islam, ca. 1000 BIOGRAPHY: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037) THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 6.3: Shahrazad Mollifies a Murderous King Islam and the West LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 7 THE STRUGGLE TO BRING ORDER: THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES, CA. 750-1000 BRINGING ORDER WITH LAWS AND LEADERSHIP The Rule of Law THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 7.1: The Visigoths Lay Down the Laws ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND: FORWARDING LEARNING AND LAW THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 7.1: Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, ca. 700 The Venerable Bede: Recording Science and History Governing the Kingdom Alfred the Great: King and Scholar THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 7.2: England in 886 CHARLEMAGNE AND THE CAROLINGIANS: A NEW EUROPEAN EMPIRE Charlemagne's Kingdom THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 7.3: The Empire of Charlemagne, ca. 800 Linking Politics and Religion Negotiating with Byzantium and Islam GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The 'Abbasid Caliphate and Charlemagne An Intellectual Rebirth THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 7.2: Charlemagne Promotes Educational Reforms STRUGGLE FOR ORDER IN THE CHURCH Monasteries Contribute to an Ordered World THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 7.3: A Comet Predicts Disaster ORDER INTERRUPTED: VIKINGS AND OTHER INVADERS Competing for the Realm: Charlemagne's Descendants THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 7.4: Partition of the Carolingian Empire, 843--Treaty of Verdun "The Wrath of the Northmen": Scandinavian Life and Values THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 7.5: Invasions of Europe, Ninth and Tenth Centuries Viking Travels and Conquests An Age of Invasions: Assessing the Legacy BIOGRAPHY: Dhuoda, Bernard, & William (ca. 840) MANORS AND FEUDAL TIES: ORDER EMERGING FROM CHAOS Peasants and Lords: Mutual Obligations on the Medieval Manor Noble Warriors: Feudal Obligations Among the Elite THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Vassal Receiving Fief Merriment, Marriage, and Medicine: A Noble's Life THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 7.4: A Wife Steals an Inheritance LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 8 ORDER RESTORED: THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES, 1000-1300 THOSE WHO WORK: AGRICULTURAL LABOR Harnessing the Power of Water and Wind New Agricultural Techniques The Population Doubles THINKING ABOUT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Catching the Wind: The Development of Windmills THOSE OUTSIDE THE ORDER: TOWN LIFE Communes and Guilds: Life in a Medieval Town THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 8.1: German Migration Eastward The Widening Web of Trade THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 8.2: Trade Routes, Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries The Glory of God: Church Architecture The Rise of Universities Scholasticism: The Height of Medieval Philosophy THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 8.1: Guibert of Nogent Describes His Education THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 8.3: Medieval Universities BIOGRAPHY: Ramon Lull (ca. 1232-1316) Discovering the Physical World THOSE WHO FIGHT: NOBLES AND KNIGHTS Castles: Medieval Homes and Havens The Ideals of Chivalry The Literature of Chivalry In Praise of Romantic Love THE RISE OF CENTRALIZED MONARCHIES England: From Conquest to Parliament THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 8.4: Medieval France, England, and Germany, Tenth through Fourteenth Centuries THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 8.5: Christian Expansion in Iberia The Spanish Reconquer Their Lands France and Its Patient Kings The Myth of Universal Rule: The Holy Roman Empire THOSE WHO PRAY: IMPERIAL POPES AND EXPANDING CHRISTENDOM A Call for Church Reform The Investiture Controversy The Byzantine Empire Struggles Christians on the March: The Crusades, 1096-1291 THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 8.2:Princess Anna Komnene Writes of Byzantium's Troubles THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 8.6: The Early Crusades, 1096-1192 THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 8.7: The Late Crusades, 1202-1270 Criticism of the Church The Church Accommodates: Franciscans and Dominicans The Church Suppresses: The Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisition LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 9 THE WEST STRUGGLES AND EASTERN EMPIRES FLOURISH: THE LATE MIDDLE AGES, CA. 1300-1500 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL MISERY Famine The Black Death: A Pandemic Strikes THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 9.1: The Spread of the Black Death THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 9.1: Agnolo the Fat Survives the Plague Peasants and Townspeople Revolt IMPERIAL PAPACY BESIEGED Popes Move to Avignon Things Get Worse: The Great Schism THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 9.2: The Great Schism, 1378-1417 The Conciliar Movement New Critics of the Church MORE DESTRUCTION: THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR, 1337-1453 England vs. France THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 9.3: The Hundred Years' War, 1337-1453 Joan of Arc THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 9.2: Joan of Arc Is Defiant Results of the War RESPONSES TO THE DISRUPTION OF MEDIEVAL ORDER William of Ockham Reconsiders Scholasticism New Literary Giants THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Illumination from a Book of Hours, Fifteenth Century A New View: Jan van Eyck EMPIRES IN THE EAST THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 9.4: The Mongol Empire, ca. 1300 Eastern Universalism: The Mongols THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 9.3: A Franciscan Missionary Goes to China The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1566 THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 9.5: The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1566 Russia: The Third Rome THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 9.6: The Rise of Moscow, 1325-1533 BIOGRAPHY: Vlad III Dracula (the Impaler), King of Wallachia (1431-1476) LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 10 A NEW SPIRIT IN THE WEST: THE RENAISSANCE, CA. 1300-1640 A NEW SPIRIT EMERGES: INDIVIDUALISM, REALISM, AND ACTIVISM The Renaissance: A Controversial Idea Why Italy? A Multifaceted Movement Humanism: The Path to Self-Improvement The Generosity of Patrons: Supporting New Ideas BIOGRAPHY: Isabella d'Este (1474-1539) THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 10.1: Isabella d'Este Implores Leonardo da Vinci to Paint for Her The Invention of the Printing Press: Spreading New Ideas THINKING ABOUT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: An Information Revolution: The Printing Press THE POLITICS OF INDIVIDUAL EFFORT The Italian City-States THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 10.1: Italy in 1454 Florence: Birthplace of the Renaissance Venice: The Serene Republic? THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 10.2: Friar Savonarola Ignites a "Bonfi re of the Vanities" Milan and Naples: Two Principalities THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 10.2: The Venetian Empire in the Fifteenth Century The Papal States The Art of Diplomacy INDIVIDUALISM AS SELF-INTEREST: LIFE DURING THE RENAISSANCE Growing Intolerance Economic Boom Times Slavery Revived Finding Comfort in Family Children's Lives AN AGE OF TALENT AND BEAUTY: RENAISSANCE CULTURE AND SCIENCE Artists and Artisans Architecture: Echoing the Human Form Sculpture Comes into Its Own Painting from a New Perspective THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Raphael, School of Athens, 1510-1511 Celestial Music of Human Emotions Science or Pseudoscience? Leonardo da Vinci: The "Renaissance Man" RENAISSANCE OF THE "NEW MONARCHIES" OF THE NORTH, 1453-1640 France: Under the Italian Influence Visual Arts in Northern Europe THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 10.3: France in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries English Humanism THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 10.3: A Courtier Describes a Suspicious King--Louis the Spider Renaissance London: A Booming City England's Pride: William Shakespeare LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 11 "ALONE BEFORE GOD": RELIGIOUS REFORM AND WARFARE, 1500-1648 THE CLASH OF DYNASTIES, 1515-1555 Land-Hungry Monarchs The Changing Rules of Warfare THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 11.1: Europe in 1526--Habsburg-Valois Wars THINKING ABOUT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Destruction and Amusement: The Development and Uses of Gunpowder Winners and Losers BIOGRAPHY: Martin Guerre (1524-1594) The Habsburg-Valois Wars, 1521-1544 A TIDE OF RELIGIOUS REFORM The Best Path to Salvation? Desiderius Erasmus: "Prince of Humanists" Luther's Revolution THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 11.1: Germans Rage Against Papal Exploitation Protestant Religious Ideas The Reformed Church Takes Root in Germany Bringing Reform to the States in Switzerland Anabaptists: The Radical Reformers Calvinism and the Growing Middle Class THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 11.2: Marie Dentiere Defends Reformation Women's Rights Henry VIII and the English Church THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION The Stirring of Reform in Spain THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 11.2: Religions in Europe, ca. 1600 The Society of Jesus THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 11.3: Ignatius Loyola Argues for Education as a Solution The Council of Trent, 1545-1563 Catholics on the Offense EUROPE ERUPTS AGAIN: A CENTURY OF RELIGIOUS WARFARE, 1559-1648 French Wars of Religion, 1562-1598 A "Council of Blood" in the Netherlands, 1566-1609 The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 11.3: The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 Peace at Westphalia LIFE AFTER THE REFORMATION New Definitions of Courtship and Marriage THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 11.4: Europe, 1648 Forging a Link Between Education and Work Anxiety and Spiritual Insecurity Searching for Scapegoats: The Hunt for Witches LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 12 FAITH, FORTUNE, AND FAME: EUROPEAN EXPANSION, 1450-1700 THE WORLD IMAGINED The Lure of the East Imagined Peoples Ptolemy's Map THE WORLD DISCOVERED Fame, Fortune, and Faith: The Drive to Explore New Technologies and Travel The Portuguese Race for the East, 1418-1600 THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 12.1: Exploration and Conquest, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Spain's Westward Discoveries, 1492-1522 THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 12.1: Amerigo Vespucci Describes the New World The Northern Europeans Join the Race, 1497-1650 CONFRONTATION OF CULTURES The Original Americans South of the Rio Grande THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 12.2: European Expansion, ca. 1700 The Original Northern Americans THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 12.3: Indigenous Peoples and Empires in the Americas, ca. 1500 Early Contacts Conquest of the Great Empires, 1520-1550 North American Contacts GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Inca Empire Falls Life and Death Under European Rule, 1550-1700 The African Slave Trade Gathering Souls in the New Lands THE WORLD MARKET AND COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION High Prices and Profits: Trading on the World Stage The Rise of Commercial Capitalism THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 12.2: Thomas Mun Praises Trade Mercantilism: Controlling the Balance of Trade The Growth of Banking The Danger of Overspending: Spain Learns a Lesson Redefining Work Roles Piracy: Banditry on a World Scale, 1550-1700 BIOGRAPHY: Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717) THE WORLD TRANSFORMED European Culture Spreads European Culture Transformed THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Festival Scene Painted on a Screen, Mexico, ca. 1650 A New Worldview LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 13 THE STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL AND SOVEREIGNTY: EUROPE'S SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORDER, 1600-1715 STRESSES IN TRADITIONAL SOCIETY Mounting Demands on Rural Life THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Louis le Nain, The Cart, 1641 Pressures on the Upper Orders THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 13.1: Bishop Bossuet Justifies Monarchical Absolutism ROYAL ABSOLUTISM IN FRANCE Henry IV Secures the Monarchy Richelieu Elevates Royal Authority Mazarin Overcomes the Opposition The Sun King Rises THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 13.2: Louis XIV Describes Monarchical Rights and Duties THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 13.1: France Under Louis XIV, 1661-1715 THE STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY IN EASTERN EUROPE Centralizing the State in Brandenburg-Prussia Austria Expands Its Control The Ottoman Challenge THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 13.2: Central and Eastern Europe, 1648 THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 13.3: Central and Eastern Europe, 1640-1725 Russia and Its Tsars Gain Prominence The Victory of the Nobility in Poland GLOBAL CONNECTIONS: The Rise and Fall of the Mughal Empire in India THE TRIUMPH OF CONSTITUTIONALISM The Nobility Loses Respect Protestantism Revitalized James I Invokes the Divine Right of Kings Charles I Alienates Parliament THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 13.4: The English Civil War, 1642-1649 "God Made Men and the Devil Made Kings": Civil War, 1642-1649 The King Laid Low A Puritan Republic Is Born: The Commonwealth, 1649-1660 Who Has the Power to Rule? The Monarchy Restored, 1660-1688 The Glorious Revolution Royalism Reconsidered: John Locke BIOGRAPHY: Samuel Pepys (1633-1703) The Netherlands Maintain a Republic THINKING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY 13.5: The United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands, 1609 THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 13.3: An Ambassador Describes the Dutch Government LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
CHAPTER 14 A NEW WORLD OF REASON AND REFORM: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT, 1600-1800 QUESTIONING TRUTH AND AUTHORITY Reasoning and Technology: East and West The Old View Undermining the Old View DEVELOPING A MODERN SCIENTIFIC VIEW Astronomy and Physics: From Copernicus to Newton THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 14.1:Kepler and Galileo Exchange Letters About Science THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 14.2: Isaac Newton: God in a Scientific Universe The Revolution Spreads: Medicine, Anatomy, and Chemistry The Methodology of Science Emerges SUPPORTING AND SPREADING SCIENCE Courts and Salons The Rise of Royal Societies Religion and the New Science The New Worldview LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS FOR THE ENLIGHTENMENT Science Popularized Skepticism and Religion Eastern Customs and Criticism of Authority THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN FULL STRIDE The Philosophes THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: DOCUMENT 14.3: Condorcet Lauds the Power of Reason The Encyclopedia Battling the Church Reforming Society BIOGRAPHY: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) The Culture and Spread of the Enlightenment THINKING ABOUT SOURCES: VISUALS: Leonard Defrance, At the Shield of Minerva, 1781 LOOKING BACK & MOVING FORWARD
GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z