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33 -- Part 8: The Global South: Latin America and Africa 1945 to the Present
The Afrikaner nationalists refused to accept defeat.
The Afrikaner nationalist platform of white supremacy and systematic racial segregation gave them political power from their English speaking rivals.
Afrikaner nationalists spoke for a large majority of South African whites after their 1948 electoral victory.
The stadium was built for the 2010 soccer World Cup and seats 68,000 people.
The World Cup was held in Africa for the first time.
South Africa's handling of the global event became a matter of great pride for the country.
The famous Table Mountain can be seen to the left of the stadium.
The Afrikaner governments created an authoritarian fabric of racial discrimination and inequality once in control.
Afrikaner propagandists claimed that South Africa had anapartheid regime.
South Africa became the most industrialized country in Africa after 1940.
Good jobs in the cities were only available to whites.
Whites lived in central cities.
As temporary migrants, blacks were restricted to outlying black townships that were plagued by poverty, crime and white policemen.
Black nationalists protested against South Africa's white supremacy from the 1920s onward.
By the 1950s large-scale peaceful protests were staged by blacks and their coloured, white, and Asian friends.
Sixty-nine blacks were killed in 1960 when police opened fire on a crowd of demonstrators.
Some of the main black nationalists abroad want to establish a new headquarters.
Nelson organization in South Africa leads other members.
In 1918, he stayed in South Africa to set up an underground army.
After seventeen months, he was tried for treason and sentenced to life imprisonment.
The moderate black opposition in South Africa was destroyed by the white government.
The militant ANC turned to armed struggle due to the sympathetic black states of Zimbabwe and Mozambique to the north.
The ANC's guerrilla activities were curbed by South Africa.
South Africa's white leaders launched a program of "reforms" in 1984.
3 million coloureds and 1 million South Africans of Asian descent were granted limited parliamentary representation for the first time.
There was no provision for representation of the country's 22 million blacks, and the laws were not changed.
Black indignation was provoked by the government's self-serving reforms.
Young black people took to the streets in the townships.
Heavily armed white security forces clashed with protesters.
Between 1985 and 1989 fifty thousand people were jailed without charges because of the po litical unrest.
The white government and the black opposition were at an impasse by 1989.
The freedom movement had gathered worldwide support despite the bloodied protesters.
The European Common Market and the U.S. Congress had sanctions against South Africa.
The white government still had power.
The political stalemate ended in September 1989 with the election of a new state presi dent.
De Klerk lifted the state of emergency, legalized the ANC, and freed Nelson Mandela in February 1990 after negotiating with him.
After suspending the ANC's armed struggle, Mandela met with de Klerk to discuss South Africa's political future.
They reached an agreement that meant black majority rule.
They guaranteed the civil and economic rights of minorities.
The first black president of South Africa was elected in 1994.
Heading the new "government of national unity" which included de Klerk as vice president, the South African people set about building a democratic, multiracial nation.
All political parties were guaranteed seats in the legislature until 1998.
Significant progress was made despite the enormity of the social and economic problems facing the successors.
Under the heavy burden of the worst AIDS crisis in the world, much still needs to be done.
Following elec tions in 2009, he became president.
His problematic personal life, his contentious remarks on homosexuality, and his personal finances have made him a light ning rod of debate in South Africa.
South Africa has a better education system, a more viable infrastructure, and a more diversified economy than any other African country.
Many people across southern Africa and even further north want South Africa to be the economic engine that drives the continent.
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