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8.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom -- Part 1
The units of the answer are correct.
The magnitude is reasonable because it is in the middle of the spectrum.
The hydrogen atom relaxes to a lower energy level and emits light.
covalent chemical bonds depend on the sharing of electrons that occupy atomic orbitals, so the shapes of atomic orbitals are important.
One model of chemical bonding includes the overlap of atomic orbitals on adjacent atoms.
The shape of the molecule is determined by the shapes of the orbitals.
In Chapter 9 we will see that the orbitals of all atoms can be approximated as being hydrogen-like and therefore have very similar shapes to hydrogen.
We are looking at the shape of each of the orbitals.
A higher probability density for the electron is indicated by the high dot density near the nucleus.
A thought experiment can help us understand probability density.
Take a photograph of the electron every second for 10 or 15 minutes.
In one photograph, the electron is very close to the nucleus, in another it is farther away, and so on.
Be for any one photo in this representation.
A plot similar to Figure 8.23(a) would be created if we took hundreds of photos and superimposed all of the sphere's surface.
This thought experiment can result in a misunderstanding, because the elec tron is moving between photographs.
That is not the case in the quantum-mechanical model.
The location of the electron is not certain because it is spread out over the entire volume of the orbital.
When a measurement of the electron's location is made, the location of the electron becomes one spot.
There is no single location for the electron.
Section 8.1 states that the measurement affects the outcome of a quantum system.
An atomic orbital can be represented as a geometric shape that covers the volume where the electron is most likely to be found.
An onion is an analogy to this.
Increasing distance from the M08_TRO4371_05_SE_C08_310-349v 3.0.2.indd will result in a greater total probability of finding.
The density goes away faster than the volume goes up.
The maximum in the radial distribution function is the same as the one that Bohr had predicted.
There is a significant conceptual difference between the two radii.
If you probe the atom in its lowest energy state, you would find the electron at a certain point.
In the quantum-mechanical model, you would find the electron at various distances, with the most likely time being 5.29 pm.
A wave function is similar to a standing wave on a vibrating string.
Looking at a slice through the orbital is how we can see the nodes.
There is no chance of finding the electron at a nodes.
The three-dimensional analogs of the nodes on a vibrating string are in the quantum-mechanical atomic orbitals.
The axis of the graph is the axis of the orbital.
A nodal plane has a shape with four lobes of electron density around the nucleus and zero electron probability density.
The waves we have just shown are three-dimensional.
The property of these orbitals can be understood by analogy to one-dimensional waves.
The wave on the left has a positive signal over its entire length, while the wave on the right has a negative signal over half of its length.
Blue and red indicate positive and negative phases in these images.
Section 8.2 shows how the phase of a wave affects another wave.
A three-dimensional wave and a one-dimensional wave have the same phase.
The phase of a quantum-mechanical orbital is represented by us.
Blue and red represent positive and negative phases.
The phase of quantum-mechanical orbitals is important in bonding.
Most atoms have many electrons occupying a number of different orbitals.
The shape of an atom is obtained by superimposing all of its orbitals.
If we superimpose a spherical shape.
It takes light in a vacuum to a different wavelength, and it was shined onto the metal surface.
Laser A did not produce photoelectrons.
The photoelectrons produced by laser B had a greater speed than those produced by laser C.
The lasers should be arranged in order of wavelength.
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