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8.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom -- Part 1

- The units of the answer are correct.
- The magnitude is reasonable because it is in the middle of the spectrum.

- The hydrogen atom relaxes to a lower energy level and emits light.

- covalent chemical bonds depend on the sharing of electrons that occupy atomic orbitals, so the shapes of atomic orbitals are important.
- One model of chemical bonding includes the overlap of atomic orbitals on adjacent atoms.
- The shape of the molecule is determined by the shapes of the orbitals.
- In Chapter 9 we will see that the orbitals of all atoms can be approximated as being hydrogen-like and therefore have very similar shapes to hydrogen.

- We are looking at the shape of each of the orbitals.

- A higher probability density for the electron is indicated by the high dot density near the nucleus.

- A thought experiment can help us understand probability density.

- Take a photograph of the electron every second for 10 or 15 minutes.
- In one photograph, the electron is very close to the nucleus, in another it is farther away, and so on.
- Be for any one photo in this representation.
- A plot similar to Figure 8.23(a) would be created if we took hundreds of photos and superimposed all of the sphere's surface.

- This thought experiment can result in a misunderstanding, because the elec tron is moving between photographs.
- That is not the case in the quantum-mechanical model.
- The location of the electron is not certain because it is spread out over the entire volume of the orbital.
- When a measurement of the electron's location is made, the location of the electron becomes one spot.
- There is no single location for the electron.
- Section 8.1 states that the measurement affects the outcome of a quantum system.

- An atomic orbital can be represented as a geometric shape that covers the volume where the electron is most likely to be found.

- An onion is an analogy to this.
- Increasing distance from the M08_TRO4371_05_SE_C08_310-349v 3.0.2.indd will result in a greater total probability of finding.

- The density goes away faster than the volume goes up.

- The maximum in the radial distribution function is the same as the one that Bohr had predicted.
- There is a significant conceptual difference between the two radii.
- If you probe the atom in its lowest energy state, you would find the electron at a certain point.
- In the quantum-mechanical model, you would find the electron at various distances, with the most likely time being 5.29 pm.

- A wave function is similar to a standing wave on a vibrating string.
- Looking at a slice through the orbital is how we can see the nodes.
- There is no chance of finding the electron at a nodes.

- The three-dimensional analogs of the nodes on a vibrating string are in the quantum-mechanical atomic orbitals.

- The axis of the graph is the axis of the orbital.

- A nodal plane has a shape with four lobes of electron density around the nucleus and zero electron probability density.

- The waves we have just shown are three-dimensional.
- The property of these orbitals can be understood by analogy to one-dimensional waves.

- The wave on the left has a positive signal over its entire length, while the wave on the right has a negative signal over half of its length.
- Blue and red indicate positive and negative phases in these images.
- Section 8.2 shows how the phase of a wave affects another wave.

- A three-dimensional wave and a one-dimensional wave have the same phase.
- The phase of a quantum-mechanical orbital is represented by us.

- Blue and red represent positive and negative phases.
- The phase of quantum-mechanical orbitals is important in bonding.

- Most atoms have many electrons occupying a number of different orbitals.
- The shape of an atom is obtained by superimposing all of its orbitals.
- If we superimpose a spherical shape.

- It takes light in a vacuum to a different wavelength, and it was shined onto the metal surface.

- Laser A did not produce photoelectrons.
- The photoelectrons produced by laser B had a greater speed than those produced by laser C.

- The lasers should be arranged in order of wavelength.

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