Edited Invalid date
16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
There is a public health focus on reducing obesity and associated health risks, which include diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease.
Calorific foods have more calories per unit mass than non-calorific ones.
One gram of fat has nine calories, one gram ofCarbohydrate has four calories, and one gram ofProtein has four calories.
Animals like to eat food with higher energy content.
Storage of the excess in fat deposits is caused by the amount of food energy taken in.
The liver is able to synthesise glycogen.
When the stores are full, more sugar is converted into fat.
The fat cells in the mammal's body store fat for later use.
The rate of overweight children in the US is on the rise.
The goal of the campaign is to teach parents and caregivers how to provide healthy nutrition and encourage active lifestyles in the future.
The goal of the program is to ensure that children have access to healthy foods and consume less calories from processed foods.
Ensuring that children get physical activity is another goal.
S sedentary lifestyles have become the norm with the increase in television viewing and video games.
Animals need a mechanism for transporting and removing waste.
The human circulatory system has a network of vessels that carry blood from one part of the body to another.
The network supplies the cells, tissues, and organs with oxygen and nutrients.
The blood is used as a medium for transport of gases.
The movement of the blood is caused by pressure differences within the system.
The blood and tissues need gas to function.
Blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in the lungs in other mammals and birds.
The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to get oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Take a deep breath and hold onto it.
Wait a few seconds and let it go.
Humans breathe an average of 15 times per minute when they don't exert themselves.
900 breaths an hour equates to 21,600 breaths per day.
Air fills the lungs and rushes back out with every exhalation.
The air is doing more than inflating and deflating the lungs.
The air contains oxygen that crosses the lung tissue, enters the bloodstream, and travels to organs and tissues.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged for cellular waste.
Carbon dioxide leaves the cells, enters the bloodstream, travels back to the lungs, and is expired out of the body during exhalation.
Chapter 16 is called The Body's Systems Breathing and it is a voluntary event.
How often a breath is taken and how much air is exhaled is regulated by the respiratory center in the brain in response to signals it receives about the carbon dioxide content of the blood.
It is possible to get around this regulation for activities such as speaking, singing and swimming under water.
Cold, dry air can cause damage to the body, so these processes help equilibrate the air.
Particulate matter that is floating in the air is removed by mucus and hairs.
Air is analysed by smell.
The human trachea is a cylinder about 25 to 30 cm (9.8-11.8 in) long and extends from the pharynx to the lungs.
It is made of incomplete rings.
The passage is kept open by the strength and support of the cartilage.
The cells in the trachea are lined with mucus.
The mucus catches particles that have been breathed in.
Two bronchi enter the right and left lung after the end of the trachea.
The bronchus and bronchioles are similar to the trachea.
The parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems control muscle contraction and relaxation in the bronchi and bronchioles.
The respiratory bronchioles are the last ones.
The end of each respiratory bronchiole has alveolar ducts attached to it.
In the alveoli, gas exchange occurs.
The alveoli look like bubbles in the sacs.
The capillaries of the circulatory system are in direct contact with the alveoli.
Oxygen will diffuse from the alveoli into the blood.
Carbon dioxide will diffuse from the blood into the alveoli.
The relationship of the respiratory and circulatory systems is emphasized by the arrangement of capillaries and alveoli.
Estimates for the surface area of alveoli in the lungs vary.
The area is about half the size of a tennis court.
The thin-walled nature of the alveolar cells allows gases to easily diffuse across the cells.
Air enters the respiratory system through the nose and goes through the pharynx to the lungs.
Air travels from the pharynx to the trachea when we breathe in.
The bronchioles are part of the body.
The heart is a part of the circulatory system.
This is a closed-loop system in which the blood is largely separated from the body's other fluid compartment, the interstitial fluid, which is the fluid bathing the cells.
The left side of the heart is larger than the right side, which is related to the different sizes of the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs after it is filled.
The left atrium receives blood from the lungs.
Oxygenated blood is taken to the organs and muscles of the body through the aorta.
All mammals have a double circulation pattern.
The heart has four chambers, two atria, and two ventricles.
Each chamber has one-way valves.
The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs.
The left side of the heart pumps blood.
There is blood in the vein.
The inferior vena cava has blood in it.
The heart pumps blood through the body in a repeating sequence called the cardiac cycle.
The heart pumps blood through the body after a relaxation phase, where the heart fills with blood.
The signal from the atria causes them to contract.
The contraction of the ventricles causes the valves to close.
The signal went down the walls of the heart through a point between the right atrium and right ventricle.
The signal causes the ventricles to contract.
The blood goes into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries.
The sound of a monosyllabic "dub" can be heard when the valves to the arteries are closed.
The pumping of the heart is dependent on the function of the cardiomyocytes that make up the heart muscle.
Cardiomyocytes are distinctive muscle cells that are striated like skeletal muscle but pump rhythmically and involuntarily like smooth muscle; adjacent cells are connected by intercalated disks.
The electrical signal can travel directly to neighboring muscle cells.
The electrical impulses in the heart produce electrical currents that can be measured on the skin.
To see the heart's electrocardiogram system in action, visit the following website.
The main arteries of the system are the aorta and major arteries.
The walls of the arteries near the heart are heavy but elastic and respond to pressure differences caused by the beating heart.
Arteries farther away from the heart have more muscle tissue in their walls that can affect the flow of blood.
arterioles are smaller vessels that reach deeper into the muscles and organs of the body.
Capillaries are narrow tubes that can fit a single red blood cell and are used for the exchange of waste and oxygen at the cellular level.
There is fluid leaking from the blood into the capillaries.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms