The Industrial Revolution resulted in profound changes in society, politics, and the economy.
The changes were local.
Some people became wealthy and built mansions, while others lived in slums with polluted water and air.
The worst local effects were being alleviated by the mid-nineth century.
Business cycles, labor conflicts, and the transformation of entire regions into industrial landscapes were more complex problems to replace.
Industrialization gave the nations of western Europe and North America more power than the rest of the world.
The most dramatic changes in the environment happened in the towns.
It was the first time that towns had grown so fast.
London, which had 500,000 inhabitants in 1700, grew to 959,000 by 1800 and to 2,363,000 by 1850, making it the largest city in the world.
Manchester, a small town of 20,000 in 1758, grew to 400,000 in a century.
In 1850, New York City reached 600,000.
Greater London, the English Midlands, central Belgium, and the Ruhr district of Germany are examples of merging towns.
Money went into the building of fine homes, churches, museums, and theaters in wealthy neighborhoods.
The industrial cities grew too fast, and much of the growth occurred in the poorer neighborhoods.
The cheap, shoddy row houses that developers built for poor migrants were described by Nassau Senior.
There were serious urban environmental problems caused by sudden population growth.
The town dwellers brought country ways with them.
Garbage and sewage were thrown out the windows in order to have it washed down the street.
The poor kept animals, the rich kept animals, and pedestrians stepped into the street at their own risk.
Since the 16th century, air pollution from burning coal has gotten worse.
People drank water from wells and rivers.
One visitor said that the River Irwell was less a river than a flood of liquid manure.
An American visitor to Manchester wrote that he was not a poor man with a family in England.
Railroads brought noise and smoke to the towns.
Railroad stations were built close to the heart of the cities.
Industrialization began on the European continent in 1850.
The first industrial regions were close to England and had rich coal deposits.
The location of railroads was determined by politics.
There are rail lines from Paris to different parts of the German Confederation.
Railroads are complete.
The vertical segregation by social class occurred in the 1840s.
The concierge and her family are on the lower level.
A wealthy family has a party for high-society friends on the first floor.
Middle-class people living on the next floor are annoyed by the noise coming from below.
An artist's studio has been entered by a thief.
The introduction of elevators in the late 19th century separated people of different income levels.
Diseases grew under these conditions.
Garbage removal, water and sewage systems, and parks and schools were some of the reforms that were led to by their shocking reports.
The ills of urban life began to be alleviated after the mid-nineteenth century.
In Britain and western Europe, there were very few wilderness areas before the Industrial Revolution.
Humans continued to alter the environment despite the fact that almost every piece of land was covered with fields, forests, or pastures.
People cut timber to build ships and houses, to heat homes, and to make bricks, iron, glass, beer, bread, and many other items.
White farmers and logging companies were able to take advantage of the land that the Canadian and American governments took from the Indians.
The settlers viewed forests as a roadblock to development.
In their haste to open up the wilderness, pioneers felled trees and burned them, built houses and abandoned them.
Cotton was grown in the South that was harmful.
After growing cotton for a few years, planters cut down forests and moved west, abandoning the land to scrub pines.
In Europe, raw materials used to be grown on the land, like wood, hay, and wool.
While forested countries smelt iron with charcoal, western Europeans used coke made from coal.
As the population increased, the cost of growing feed for horses rose, creating incentives to find new, less land-hungry means of transportation.
As iron became cheaper and wood became more expensive, ships and other objects made of wood began to be made of iron.
Many canals were built in England in the late 18th and early 19th century so that barges could transport heavy materials cheaply, such as coal for industrial works and steam engines, stone and bricks for buildings, clay for pottery works, and ores for metal foundries.
Britain's industrial development was greatly influenced by canals such as this one.
The most obvious changes in rural life were brought about by the new transportation systems.
Napoleon extended a network of quality roads into Italy and Germany in the 18th century.
Private toll roads were built because of the neglect of the roads that served long-distance traffic.
Canal-building booms in Britain, France, and the Low Countries were triggered by the growing volume of freight.
The duke of Bridgewater's canal in England connected coal mines to towns.
National transportation networks were created by others.
The railroads were the next great trans portation system because engineers learned how to apply skills to it.
They built bridges across valleys and laid track across the rolling country.
The long-isolated districts were invaded by trains.
New opportunities were offered by industrialization.
There was great demand for carpenters, metalworkers, and machinists.
Some workers went into business for themselves.
The boldest Britons moved to Europe, the Americas, or India to establish new industries.
The successful were a minority.
Industrial jobs were boring and unskilled.
The factory work began and ended by the clock.
The working day was expanded by gas lighting.
Workdays were long and there were few breaks.
Workers who performed one simple task over and over had little sense of achievement or connection to the final product.
Industrial accidents can ruin a family.
Factory workers did not have control over their work hours.
The night was dangerous before the 19th century.
Oil lanterns and candles were expensive.
Everyone got up at dawn after going to bed at sundown.
There was a demand for better lighting.
In the winter months, when daylight hours are too short, the manag ers of industrial establishments were forced to use lanterns and candles, which were costly and dangerous.
Wealthy people wanted to light up their homes.
Light was needed for businesses and government offices.
Inventions were inspired by the demand to find new ways to produce light.
The French engineer knew that heating wood to make charcoal could cause a fire.
The process of moving from these experiments to commercial appli T cations was lengthy.
The National Light and Heat Company was founded by M. One of the most dramatic mains brings gas to several neighborhoods.
Baltimore was the first American city to install gas mains and lighting.
The gas came from heat and streetlamps.
Coal was used to make coke for the iron industry, and the gas was used to make gas safer and cleaner.
The amount of gas consumed and burners hoods of big cities were measured using iron pipes distributed throughout wealthier neighbor meters.
At dusk, lamplighters lit up the sky with a brighter light.
The street lamps are better lit as a result of these.
Gaslights were installed in homes from the 1840s to the early twentieth century.
The increase in adult educa of Europe and America can be attributed to evening illumination businesses and factories in the major cities.
The results were very pleasing to the city dwellers.
On two eight- to ten-hour readings, mills and factories could operate.
Brightly lit cities attracted migrants from the still shifts.
The terrors of the stayed open late had been eliminated by gas lighting.
There were evening performances at the theaters.
Women and family life were impacted by industrial work.
Women who couldn't afford servants always worked in the family, doing everything from spinning and weaving to washing and preparing food.
Women cared for gardens and small animals in rural areas.
In the early years of industrialization, factory work was not the main occupation of working women.
The risk of sexual abuse by male employers made most young women who sought paid employment become domestic servants.
Women with small children tried to find work at home, such as laundry, sewing, embroidery, millinery, or taking in lodgers.
Textile work required less strength than construction, so those who worked in factories were concentrated in textile mills.
Women earn one-third to one-half as much as men.
There are children in a textile mill.
Child labor was common in the first half of the 19th century, and workers were exposed to dangerous machines and moving belts, as well as to dust and dirt.
6 young unmarried women worked to support themselves or save for marriage.
People worked in different places.
There were no public schools or day-care centers when they were there.
Employers preferred child workers because they were cheaper and more submissive than adults and were better able to tie broken threads or crawl under machines to sweep the dust.
Most of the workers in the cotton mills were children.
Children were beaten if they made mistakes or fell asleep.
Children were used to pull coal carts from the coal face to the mine shaft.
Americans remembered their revolutionary ideals in the early 19th century.
The unmarried daughters of New England farmers were promised decent wages and housing in dormitories by the man who built the cotton mill in Massachusetts.
His example was followed by other manufacturers.
Longer hours, harsher working conditions, and lower wages were imposed by manufacturers after the profit motive won out.
When the young women went on strike, the mill owners replaced them with Irish immigrants willing to accept lower pay and worse conditions.
African Ameri cans paid for the cotton boom with their freedom.
The United States was home to hundreds of thousands of slaves of African descent.
60 percent of the slaves in the United States were growers of cotton, as the "Cotton Kingdom" expanded.
Slavery in the plantations of the West Indies was caused by the demand for sugar.
Slavery was not a "peculiar institution," as white American southerners maintained, but part of the Industrial Revolution.
The worst-off in Britain were people who were stuck with obsolete skills.
The wages of handloom weavers had fallen by a third by the year 1812.
They could not escape destitution because of working longer hours.
The standard of living of factory workers fluctuated wildly.
Real wages and public health began to improve in the 1820s.
Wages rose and prices fell.
The poor could afford cotton clothes and underwear.
The potato crop failed in Ireland.
One quarter of the Irish population died in the famine, and another quarter moved to England and North America.
The middle class was the real beneficiaries of the Industrial Revolution.
Landowning gentry and merchants had a long history in Britain.
Entrepreneurs whose money came from manufacturing formed in the late 18th century.
Most were the sons of mediocre shopkeepers, craftsmen, or farmers.
Little capital was needed to start a cotton-spinning or machine-building business for their enterprises to be self-financed.
Newly rich industrialists bought their way into high society in the 19th century.
The same thing happened in western Europe after 1816.
Middle-class women were removed from contact with the business world because of acult of domesticity.
They became responsible for the home, the servants, the education of children, and the family's social life.
The Industrial Revolution changed people's lives and the environment if some people could succeed through hard work, according to middle-class people.
The middle class lived in mines and factories.
The Industrial Revolution triggered political ferment and ideological conflict.
We can't separate out the consequences of industrialization from the wars and revolutions that took place during those years.
Britain lowered its import duties.
It was obvious that industrial ries were causing misery.
Thomas Malthus tried to explain the poverty he saw without challenging the country and its colonies and basic premises of laissez faire.
They said that the workers' plight was caused by the population accumulate precious met boom, which outpaced the food supply and led to falling wages.
The poverty of the workers was a result of "natural law" as well as the wealth of successful businessmen, and the only way the working class could avoid mass famine was to trade with their own money.
Not everyone accepted the grim conclusions of the "dismal system by laws known as the science."
He argued that the German states had to put high tariffs against imports from Britain to protect theirinfant industries.
A new vision of a just civilization was offered by French social thinkers who were moved by concern for the poor.
The poor should be counted of Saint-Simon.
Under the protection of benevolent tivists, Posi guided by scientists and artists form workers' communities.
These ideas attracted the enthusiastic support of bankers and entrepreneurs, as well as economic problems for which positivism provided a rationale for investing in railroads, canals, and other symbols.
They resisted in the harsh working conditions of Latin America.
They went on strike in the 19th century.
In some places, craftsmen destroyed machines that threatened their livelihoods.
Resistance did not change the nature of industrial work.
Workers began to demand shorter workdays and universal male sufficing.
Robert Owen founded the Grand National Consolidated Trade Union to lobby for an eight hour workday, but it collapsed in the face of government prosecution after gaining half a million members.
Changes in society and the economy were demanded.
The free-market idea gathered 1.3 million signatures on a petition, but was proposed by Adam Smith that appealed to business people.
It was rejected by parliament.
There was a legacy of labor organizing after chartism collapsed.
Mass movements persuaded Positivists that they could be alleviated by technological British Parliament to investigate conditions in advances and wise policies.
The work of nine children in textile mills was stopped because of the Factory Act of 1833.
The working women and children were limited.
The employment of women and boys under the age of ten was banned by the Mines Act of 1842.
The battle over the Corn Laws was the most important.
Their repeal in the name of "free trade" was meant to lower the cost of food for workers and allow employers to pay less.
The repeal was a victory for the rising class of manufacturers over the conservatives who had long dominated politics and whose harvests faced competition from cheaper imported food.
The British were able to seek reform through accommodations.
The revolutions of 1848 on the European continent revealed widespread discontent with repressive governments but failed to ease the hardship of industrialization.
The relations of western Europe and North America with the rest of the world were changed by the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrialization of Egypt began in the early 19th century, influenced by European ideas.
The ruler was Muhammad Ali, a man who was to play a major role in the history of the Middle East and East Africa.
In order to become less dependent on the Ottoman sultan, Muhammad Ali wanted to build up the Egyptian economy and military.
He imported advisers and technicians from Europe to build cotton mills, foundries, shipyards, weapons factories and other industrial enterprises.
The peasants were made to grow wheat and cotton, which the government bought at a low price and exported at a profit.
The pace of industrialization was forced by high tariffs on imported goods.
The British did not want a powerful country threat to interrupt the flow of travelers and mail across Egypt, the shortest route between Europe and India.
When Egypt went to war against the Ottoman Empire in 1839, Britain forced Muhammad Ali to eliminate all import duties in the name of free trade.
Egypt's industries could not compete with cheap British products.
Britain became an economic dependency of Egypt after it exported cotton.
India was the world's largest producer and exporter of cotton textiles until the late 18th century.
The Industrial Revolution was beginning in Britain when the British East India Company took over large parts of India.
It allowed cheap British factory-made yarn and cloth to flood the Indian market duty-free, putting spinners and handloom weavers out of work.
India did not have factories to which displaced handicraft workers could turn for work.
Most of them became landless peasants.
India became an importer of British industrial goods and an exporter of raw materials.
Railroads were introduced into the subcontinent to speed up the process.
The construction of India's railroad network began in the late 19th century, along with coal mining and the installation of telegraph lines to connect the major cities.
The atmosphere of change created by the British inspired some Indian entrepreneurs.
India's first textile mill was started in 1854 by the Bombay merchant Cowasjee Nanabhoy Davar, who imported an engineer, four skilled workers, and several textile machines from Britain.
This was the beginning of India's cotton industry.
India's industrialization proceeded at a snail's pace because the government was in British hands and the British did nothing to encourage Indian industry.
In the second half of the 19th century, industrialized nations, especially Great Britain, sent engineers and equipment to build railroads in less-industrialized parts of the world, such as India, South Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East.
Cairo and Alexandria were connected by a railway.
The railroad bridge crosses the Nile near the Pyramids.
When first Britain and then western Europe and North America became industrialized, China was stagnant.
It had the resources, both human and natural, to advance technologically and economically, but a conservative elite stood in the way of change.
China became weaker when faced with Western technology.
A new ship was launched in January 1840.
It arrived off the coast of China in November.
Iron is used to make it strong.
The hull is painted black.
The wheel is made to spin as fast as a horse by using coal fire.
At the vessel's head is a Marine God, and at the head, stern, and sides are cannon, which give it a terrific appearance.
A wonderful invention of foreigners, steam vessels offer delight to many.
The power to force non-Western societies is west.
The cases of Egypt, India, and China show how and India and turned these countries into producers of raw the demands of Western nations and the military materials.
Chapter 28 will show this powered gunboats.
Since the beginning of agriculture, the Industrial Revolution has been the most significant transformation.
The steam engine and other new machines greatly lowered the cost and increased the production of goods like cotton and iron.
Social upheavals and environmental problems were caused by the process.
Many entrepreneurs and business people became wealthy while industrial workers were poor and lived in overcrowded tenements.
The solutions to the radical problems of industrial societies were offered by economists and philosophers.
On a global scale, industrialization had political consequences.
First Great Britain, then those of western Europe and North America became more powerful.
The parts of the world left behind became political or economicDependencies of the powerful nations.
Industrial nations learned to alleviate their social problems, but the disparity between rich and poor nations persisted for two centuries or more, and the environmental effects of industrialization changed from local to global.
The intersection of Goodman, J., and K. Honeyman is emphasized.