The map of Virginia was created by John Smith, one of the earliest explorers and settlers of the colony.
America in the seven teenth century was a land of new beginnings and new opportunities for thousands of seekers and explorers.
The English settlers who came to America and the Caribbean islands found a developed region populated by Native Americans.
The Indians of the Massachusetts colony fell sick of the smal pox and died miserably.
Europeans were dealt with in different ways by Native Americans.
Many resisted, others retreated, and still others had thriving trade relationships with the newcomers.
The Indians were quickly displaced or decimated in some areas.
If Indians were willing to adopt the English way of life, they found ways to live in cooperation with English settlers.
After establishing the Virginia, Maryland, and New England colonies, the English went on to conquer the New Netherland and establish the rest of the American mainland colonies.
The English colonies all took part in the enslavement of other people, either Native Americans or Africans.
Slavery, common throughout the world in the 17th and 18th centuries, enriched a few, corrupted many, and compromised the American dream of equal opportunity.
The island nation of England had developed political practices and governing principles similar to those of Europe, but with differences.
European societies were tightly controlled.
People learned their place in the social order from birth.
Commoners bowed to priests, peasants pledged their loyalty to landown ers, and nobles knelt before the monarchs, who claimed God had given them absolute power to rule over their domain.
The Great Charter of 1215 was a statement of fundamental rights and liberties that nobles forced the king to approve.
England would be ruled by laws.
Everyone was equal before the law.
The Parliament was formed by the people's representatives and consisted of the hereditary and appointed members of the House of Lords and the elected members of the House of Commons.
The authority to impose taxes was the most important power given to Parliament.
The legislature was able to exert leverage over the monarchy by controlling tax revenue.
James VI of Scotland became King James I of England after Queen Elizabeth died without an heir to inherit the throne.
He referred to his kingdom as Great Britain.
James claimed to govern by "divine right," which meant he answered only to God.
All Roman Catholic rituals must be stopped.
The vestments were not elegant priestly robes.
Dows, statues of Jesus, and stained glass cathedrals are the only things that win dows.
The Puritans wanted to simplify religion to its most basic elements: people worshiping God in plain, self- governing congregation without formal trappings of Catholic and Anglican ceremonies.
They hoped the new king would support their efforts, but James I embraced the Anglican Church to avoid a civil war and sought to remove the "bothersome" Puritans from England.
The leaders of the Church of England were incensed by this.
Some Sep aratists decided to sail for America after leaving England.
Charles I succeeded his father in 1625 and was a defender of absolute royal power.
Parliament was dissolved from 1629 to 1640 because he raised taxes without consulting it.
The monarchy went too far when it forced worship on Presbyterian Scots.
The Puritans refused to be witnessed by parliament led by John Weesop.
He refused to visit England again because he was so disgusted by a country where they cut off their king's head.
Many New England Puritans return home to fight against the Royalist army.
The Puritans had killed a king but not the monarchy.
Cromwell ruled like a military dictator.
Roman Catholics and Anglicans were banned, but the Puritan dictatorship fed resentment.
The Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, eldest son of the executed king, was supported by the army after Cromwel's death.
King Charles II agreed to rule with Parliament.
The Duke of York was more strict than his brother.
James murdered or imprisoned his political opponents.
James II's rule was allowed by the English as long as they expected Mary or Anne to succeed him.
The birth of a royal son who would be raised Roman Catholic caused a revolt.
Political, reli gious, and military leaders urged the king's Protestant daughter, Mary, and her Protestant husband, William III of Orange, the ruling Dutch prince, to assume the English throne as joint monarchs.
King James II fled to France after William landed in England.
Parliament regained its right to counterbalance the author ity of the monarchy after the dramatic transfer of power.
Parliament's consent was no longer needed for kings and queens to impose taxes.
The power of the monarchy would be derived from the people through their representatives in Parliament.
All but one of England's North American colonies were founded in the 17th century.
The Spanish pattern of regulating all aspects of colonial life was different from the English one.
The original Amer ican colonies were treated the same as Ireland.
The government sought to smother Irish nationalism by confiscating Irish Catholic lands and repopulating them with 120,000 Protestants.
English soldiers and colonizers inflicted a lot of cruelties on the "wild Irish," whom they regarded as savage and barbaric as the Indians of North America.
English rule and religion would be imposed upon the Native Americans.
England was jealous of the huge amount of gold and silver taken from the New World by Spain.
The monarchs who funded the conquistadores owned most of the wealth and lands accumulated by the Spanish.
The English colonization in the Amer icas was led by churches and companies who sought freedom from religious persecution and land and wealth.
The cost of planting colonies in America was high.
If a colony failed, no single investor would suffer the entire loss, because large amounts of money could be raised.
The investors would share the profits based on the amount of stock they owned.
The first instruments of English colonization in America were provided by the joint- stock companies.
The English settlements in America were smaller than those in New Spain and the native peoples along the Atlantic coast were less wealthy.
English settlers viewed the Indians as a threat to be removed as they created family- based agricultural and trading communities.
England's colonies were more populous than the Spanish, French, and Dutch colonies.
In 1660, there were 58,000 colonists in New England, Virginia, and Maryland, compared with 3,000 in New France and 5,000 in Dutch New Netherland.
In the northernmost areas of New Spain, the lands that became Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Florida, and California, there were only 20,000 Spaniards.
To populate the colonies, the English encouraged social rebels, religious dissenters, and the homeless and landless to migrate to America.
Immigrants had no choice.
Several thousand Royal ist prisoners, mostly Scots, were shipped to America as servants for hire.
Girls were also sent to America.
Many of them did very well.
The promise of a better way of life was one of the most powerful enticements to colonists.
Once it was taken from the Native Americans, English America's treasure was land, plentiful and cheap.
Immigrants shared an impulse to escape the con straints and corruptions of the old and the courage to risk everything for a life of freedom and adventure in the new.
They re- created themselves as Americans in the process of discovering a New World of opportunities and dangers.
A population explosion in England created a surplus of landless workers.
Many of the unemployed found work in America.
Land lords decided to close farmlands and evict farmworkers as trade in woolen products grew.
The enclosure movement and rising population resulted in a large number of beggars and vagrants in England during the late 16th century.
Many of the peas ant population were sent to colonies in America and the Caribbean because of the problems they created.
Valiant youths from lack of employment would flourish in America and generate trade that would enrich England according to the Reverend Richard Hakluyt.
The Virginia Company was founded in 1606 by King James I.
It was owned by people who wanted to profit from the gold and silver they hoped to find in America.
The Virginia Company recommended supplies to new settlers.
The Virginia Company sent three ships to America in December 1606.
In May 1607, after five storm-tossed months at sea, they reached the broad expanse of the bay, which extends 200 miles along the coast of Virginia and Maryland.
The English chose to settle along a large river in order to avoid Spanish raiders.
They named their settlement after the king.
The colonists found "fair meadow and goodly tall trees" and plentiful freshwater rivers that were four times bigger and better than England's.
The English built a fort with thatched huts and a church on a low lying peninsula surrounded by boggy salt marshes.
The settlers were expected to find gold, friendly Indians and easy living.
They found disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, disease, Every colonist fell ill within a year.
The settlers blundered their way from mistake to mistake for fifteen years.
They stole or traded for Indian corn because they were unwilling to invest time and labor in growing their own food.
Powhatan, as the English called him, lorded over several hundred vil ages and organized into thirty chiefdoms in eastern Virginia.
Powhatan was focused on destroying the Chesapeakes, who lived along the Virginia coast.
The Powhatan Confederacy may have been the most powerful group of native peoples on the Atlantic coast.
They lived in houses covered in bark or mats and were focused on rais ing corn and conquering their neighbors.
forts, buildings for storing corn, and temples were part of the walled vil ages.
Chief Powhatan lived in a lodge on the York River, where he was protected by forty bodyguards and supported by 100 wives.
Smith observed that the Powhatans were very handsome and tall.
Many of them painted their bodies with feathers and chains.
The Powhatans lived in family engraving from John Smith.
Chief Powhatan and others had 200 huts.
The Powhatan men are sitting in a dominant position.
The English or Spanish were just as imperialist as Powhatan was.
He forced the chiefs to give him corn.
He was going to impose his will on the "Strangers" after learning of the English settlement.
Englishmen were killed by Powhatans when they discovered they were stealing corn.
John Smith, an international mercenary who had fought in battles across Europe, killed three Turkish officers and was enslaved by the Turks, was a match for Powhatan.
At five feet three inches, he was a stocky runt of a man overflowing with tenacity, courage, and confidence.
Smith was appointed to manage the new colony in America by The Virginia Company.
Smith imagined America as a land of opportunity and freedom.
Smith confronted an infant colony.
Only 38 of the original 105 settlers survived the first nine months.
He made everyone work long days in the fields.
He did a good job with the Indians.
Through his efforts, the town survived.
He said that the colonists quarrel ing were a sorry lot.
Several hare-brained money- making schemes were tried when no gold or silver was found.
They tried to develop a wine industry, to make silk, and to blow glass, all of which were failures.
The colony was nearly overwhelmed by the influx of new settlers.
Most of the colonists died of disease or starvation during the winter of 1609-1610 because the food supply ran out again.
Desperate settlers ate their animals, including horses, cats, and dogs.
Some people ate their leather shoes and boots and the starch in their shirt.
Horrified by cannibalism, his fellow colonists tortured and executed him.
As the starvation got worse, the cannibalism continued.
Sir Thomas Gates brought 150 new people to the colony.
The settlement was in a mess.
Sixty or so skeletons remained, and most were sick from disease.
Gates loaded the surviving colonists on his ships and they headed for the bay and the ocean.
They spied three relief ships on the way upriver.
The ships carried a new governor, Thomas West, known as Lord De La Warr, several hundred men, and plentiful supplies.
Gates was ordered to turn around by De La Warr.
The turning point for the colony was that chance encounter.
Gates imposed a strict system of laws after Lord De La Warr returned to England in 1611.
Penalties for running away included shooting, hanging, and burning.
When a man was caught stealing oatmeal, the authorities put a long needle through his tongue, chained him to a tree, and let him starve to death as an example to the community.
Gates ordered the colonists to attend church on Thursdays and Sundays.
Public policy and civil duty in colonial Virginia were based on religious uniformity.
The plant had been grown on Caribbean islands for a long time, and smoking had become a popular habit in Europe.
Tobacco was grown in Virginia for export to England.
The colony shipped 50,000 pounds of tobacco a year by 1620.
Tobacco farming requires more cleared lands for planting and more people to work in the fields.
A planter said they needed a lot oflusty laboring men.
This arrangement made it easier for immigrant workers to come to the colony.
The primary source of labor in English America during the colonial period was indentured servitude.
Most of the 350,000 English immigrants who came to America as indentured servants were penniless young men and boys.
The gender ratio in Virginia was six men to every woman in the 1630s, but by the 1650s it was three men to every woman.
Some indentured servants came to the colonies on their own.
Many home less children in London were sold into slavery in America.
Parliament decided to save money on prisons by sending felons to the colonies, and 50,000 were sent to the New World.
Food and a bed were provided to servants when they arrived in America.
They died before their indenture ended.
There were few rights for servants.
They could be sold, leased, or rented to others, and masters could whip them or chain them in iron col lars and extend their service as punishment for bad behavior.
Marriages had to be approved by the master.
Being indentured was almost like being a slave, but servants could file a complaint with the local court.
Slavery did not last a lifetime, which was the most important difference between it and servanthood.
After four to seven years, the indenture ended, and the servant could claim the "freedom dues" set by custom and law: tools, clothing, food, and small tracts of land.
Some former servants did something.
In 1629, seven members of the Virginia legislature arrived in America as indentured servants, and by 1637, fifteen were serving in the Maryland Assembly.
People were more likely to travel to America due to these opportunities being less common in England and Europe.
The daughter of Chief Powhatan was one of the most remarkable Powhatans.
She was only eleven years old when she made her plea for the life of John Smith.
After Indians attacked Smith and a group of Englishmen, killing two of them and capturing the rest, Chief Powhatan asked Smith why they were on his territory.
Smith said they had been chased by Spaniards.
Powhatan told his warriors to kill Smith.
He was told to kneel and place his head on the altar.
As they prepared to smash his skull with war clubs, young Pocahontas made a dramatic appeal for his life, convincing her father to release him in exchange for muskets, hatchets, beads, and trinkets.
The story of Pocahontas and John Smith is still taught to England's Colonies School children, but the facts have changed over time.
John Smith was not a fan of Disney World.
Smith was saved by the Indian princess before she was kidnapped by English settlers in an attempt to blackmail Powhatan.
The English were surprised by her decision to join them.
She embraced Christianity, was christened Rebecca, and fell in love with John Rolfe, a widower who introduced tobacco to Jamestown.
They moved to London with their son in 1616.
The young princess drew interest from the royal family.
Rebecca was only twenty years old when she died of a lung disease.
The Virginia Company's head, Sir Edwin Sandys, was a member of Parlia ment.
The key innovation was to shift from joint ownership to private ownership.
If an Englishman bought a share in the company and paid for the passage to Virginia, he could have fifty acres upon arrival and fifty more for each servant he brought along.
The English had long enjoyed the least intrusive government in Europe and had long enjoyed the broadest civil liberties.
The colonists in Virginia would have the same rights.
They had the benefits of marriage as well.
In 1619, a ship carrying ninety young women arrived.
Men rushed to claim them as their wives by giving them 125 pounds of tobacco.
The first of 450,000 Africans who would be shipped from Africa to America as slaves were sold into slavery.
Thus began an inhumane system that would spur dramatic economic growth, sow moral corruption, and cause horrible suffering for African Americans.
Virginia became a royal colony after the Virginia Company declared bankruptcy.
The settlers were free to start businesses.
The king would appoint their governors.
The colony's rapid growth was presided over by Sir William Berkeley, the royal governor, for most of the next thirty five years.
Tobacco prices went up, and wealthy planters dominated social and political life.
The model for many of the struggles, achievements, and ironies that would come to define the American spirit was formed by the mixture of greed and piety and the exploitation of both Indians and Africans.
Growing social tensions among whites were created by the constant stream of new settlers.
The planters wanted to live like the English gentlemen who owned huge estates in the English country side.
In Virginia, these men obtained the most fertile land along the coast and forced freed servants to become farmworkers in order to gain their own farms.
The poor ginians found themselves at a disad vantage.
One fourth of the free white men were landless.
They lived in the countryside, squatting on private property, working at odd jobs, and struggling to survive.
Poor, indebted, discontented, and armed Virginia colonists were ripe for rebel lion according to the governor.
There was a pamphlet printed in London about the Rebellion.
England's Colonies planter's herdsman was retaliation for the killing of two dozen Indians.
Indians took revenge on frontier settlements after five natives were murdered.
He promised to free slaves and servants who joined him if he killed all the Indians in Virginia.
The fight between landless servants, small farm ers, and even some slaves against Virginia's wealthiest planters and political leaders quickly became a battle of landless servants, small farm ers, and even some slaves against Virginia's wealthiest planters and political leaders.
The governing authorities and the planter elite were incensed by Bacon's lust for power and land and his lack of commitment to democratic principles.
The Berkeley colonists opposed the efforts because they didn't want to stop the profitable deerskin trade.
Berkeley tried to take the governor into custody after he was accused of corruption.
Berkeley's forces resisted, and the men of Bacon's burned Jamestown in anger.
The rebellion disintegrated after the death of bacon, who fell ill and died a month later.
The rebels were hanged by Governor Berkeley.
Berkeley was recalled to England, where he died within a year, after the king denounced him as a "fool".
Ten years after Virginia became a royal colony, a settlement appeared on the northern shore of the bay.
Maryland was named in honor of an English queen and was granted 12 million acres by King Charles I.
One of the king's favorites was Calvert.
He became a royal secretary of state in 1619.
After a fight with the king's advisers, he resigned and converted to Catholicism.
James II agreed to grant a charter for an American colony north of Virginia.
The colony was founded by Cecilius, the second Lord Baltimore, who spent the rest of his life making it sustainable after his father died.
Cecilius wanted Maryland to be a refuge.
He wanted the colony to be profitable and not antagonize Protestants.
The first settlement in coastal Maryland was established in 1634 by the Calverts.
Cecilius recruited a group of families who wanted to stay rather than just single men who wanted to make quick money.
The Calverts did not want a colony of scattered farms or dependent on tobacco exports because they were vulnerable to Indian attack.
They wanted to create a more diversified agriculture and build fortified towns to promote social interaction.
Extremes of economic wealth and poverty were avoided by the Calverts.
They gave 100 acres to each adult and 50 to each child.
Jesuit priests were sent to India.
The Calverts decided to purchase land from the Native Americans rather than taking it by force in order to avoid the chronic Indian wars in Virginia.
The early years in Maryland were similar to those in Virginia.
Thirty percent of infants born in the colony died in their first year, and half of the colonists died before they were twenty years old.
The white population of the colony was only 20,000 in 1680.