British goods that would be traded for alcohol, tobacco, and hardware would be traded for gold, ivory, or dyewood.
European traders used two systems for exchange.
They established factory-forts on the Gold Coast.
The posts were expensive to maintain but were useful forfending off European rivals.
The shore method of buying slaves was used to bring traders and slaves out to the ships.
The final prices of those enslaved depended on their ethnic origin, their availability when the shipper arrived, and their physical health when offered for sale in the West.
Supplying slaves for the foreign market was either controlled by a small, wealthy African merchant class or a state monopoly.
Gathering a band of raiders and the capital for equipment, guides, tol s, and supplies was a lot of work.
Black entrepreneurs with large capital and labor could not afford to finance raiding drives.
They exported enslaved men and women because the profits on exports were more than the profits from using labor in the domestic economy.
European merchants sailed to Africa on the first leg of the voyage to trade with Africans.
When they filled their ships' holds with enslaved peoples, they headed across the Atlantic on the second leg of the voyage.
When they reached the Americas, the merchants unloaded their human cargo and used the profits to purchase cotton, sugar, and indigo, which they then transported back to Europe.
The economics of the Portuguese and Spanish colonies of South America and in the Dutch, French, and British colonies of the Caribbean and North America were affected by the enslavement of African people.
The slave trade is important to the Atlantic world.
The expansion of capitalism, as well as the industrialization of Western societies, Egypt, and the nations of West, Central, and South Africa are related to the traffic in African people.
Africans had technology that was suited to their environment.
Over the centuries, they had cultivated a wide variety of plant foods, developed plant and animal husbandry techniques, and mined, smelted, and otherwise worked a great variety of metals.
Guns, American tobacco and rum, and the cheap brandy brought by the Portuguese were some of the European goods sent to Africans.
They liked foreign products because of their low prices.
African manufacturers could not compete with traders of handwoven Indian cotton textiles, Venetian imitations of African beads, and iron bars from European smelters.
African ex changed slaves, ivory, gold, pepper, and animal skins.
African merchants gained the most from foreign trade.
Dahomey's king had a gross income in 1750 of PS250,000 from the overseas export of his fel ow Africans.
His people's living standard was improved by a portion of his profit.
Slave-trading Entrepots, which provided opportunities for traders and for farmers who supplied food stuffs to towns, caravans, and slave ships, prospered.
International trade did not lead to Africa's economic development.
Africa did not experience technological growth or the gradual spread of economic benefits.
The slave trade was also done by women in sub-Saharan Africa.
They obtained a lot of money by marrying the Portuguese merchants and serving as go-betweens for outsiders who were not familiar with the customs and languages of the African coast.
A metis, or mulatto, class was created by the intermarriage of French traders and women from Senegambia.
In the emerging urban centers at Saint-Louis, members of the smal class adopted the French language, the Roman Catholic faith, and a French way of life, and they exercised considerable political and economic power.
European cultural influences did not penetrate West African society beyond the seacoast.
The political consequences of the slave trade were different in different places.
In the short run, the trade gave power and wealth to some kings and warlords, but in the long run it promoted instability and collapse.
In the Kongo kingdom, which was located in parts of modern Angola, the Republic of the Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Portuguese search for Africans undermined the monarchy, destroyed political unity, and led to constant disorder and warfare.
The slave trade decimated the population and destroyed the local economy when it became a Portuguese proprietary colony.
The military kingdom of Dahomey, which entered into the slave trade in the 18th century and became a royal monopoly, prospered enormously.
Dahomey's economic strength was based on the slave trade.
Dahomey became one of the major West African sources of slaves in the late 18th century after the royal army raided the interior.
When European de mand declined, the depression caused by it caused serious politi cal unrest.
The British drained tens of thousands of enslaved Africans from the great port cities of Bonny and Brass in Iboland.
Ibo societies remained demographically and economically strong despite the incursions of the slave trade.
Between 1501 and 1865, more than 12 million Africans were forcibly exported to the Americas, 6 million were traded to Asia, and 8 million were retained as slaves in Africa.
Approximately 10 to 15 percent of procurement deaths are not included in export figures.
The early modern slave trade involved a worldwide web of relationships among mar kets in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Africa was the center of the trade.
Africa, which was most in need of population because of its dependence on labor-intensive agriculture and pastoralism, lost so many millions to the trade.
The trade between Africa and Brazil and Cuba continued despite the abolition of the slave trade by the British Parliament.