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Chapter 8 Genetics -- Part 4
Polypeptides block the production of genes in cells.
The source grow faster than on transcription and translation when the repressor is inactive.
After a short lag time, the lactose is consumed by the bacteria growing in the All Glucose medium.
3 Repressors active and off.
Accumulation of tryptophan prevents further synthesis of tryptophan.
Explain the procedure for the Ames test.
CAP is unable to stimulation transcription when there is a shortage of cAMP.
The cell has similar shortRNAs in it that enable it to deal with environmental stresses.
Some miRNAs hybridize with viral RNA in mammals.
A grandchild cell is affected by thismutation.
The result is a substitution of that gene.
For example, AT might be replaced for a different type of gene, the one that causes GC.
If a base substitution occurs in a gene that is less active.
If the base of the mRNA is incorrect, it may be disadvantageous or even lethal.
The cell needs a certain trait.
If the incorrect base is inserted into the protein, the altered enzyme may be beneficial.
There is a new or enhanced activity that benefits the cell.
The effects can be dramatic.
Base sequence causes no change in the activity of the product when there is a single change in the gene.
globin is a component of hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin is a substitution for another in the DNA and is primarily responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
The result is a change in the pro ing new codon's code for the same amino acid.
This causes the shape of the hemoglobin molecule to change, the function of the protein may not work under low oxygen, and this causes the shape of the red blood cells to change.
Misshapen red blood cells are very similar to the original.
T A C T T C A A A C G A T T the three-by-three grouping of nucleotides recognized as codons can be shifted by the translational reading frame.
Changes in many amino acids are caused by changes in the middle of a gene.
In most cases, a nonsense codon will end translation.
There are times when significant numbers of bases are added to a gene.
A person's Dna can be altered.
The function of the gene could be altered by the ala nucleotide in Dna.
By making a nonsense codon in the middle of Robert's death.
Altered adenine will cause hydrogen to bond with an oxygen and a hydrogen hydrogen and a nitrogen of a cytosine nucleotide.
THemine is C A T.
Burning fossil fuels oxidizes adenine.
The granddaughter cell has been changed to GC base pairs.
A specific base-pair change is made by N acid.
The AT pair is similar to normal nitrogenous pair with cytosine.
A person takes in base pairs.
The 5-bromouracil is mistaken for a different drug in the progeny cells.
An AT pair becomes a GC pair with the next DNA drugs.
The resulting tions can result in frameshifts.
It was used to synthesise DNA.
Frameshift mutagens have the right size and chemical properties to slip between the base pairs of the double helix.
They can work by slightly offsetting the two strands of DNA, leaving a gap or bulge in one strand or the other.
One or more base pairs can be inserted or deleted in the new double-stranded DNA when the staggered DNA synthesis are copied.
Exposure to ultraviolet lightgens can cause cancer.
The ability of X rays and gamma rays to ionize atoms and molecules makes them potent mutagens.
The electrons pop out of their shells when they are exposed to ionizing radiation.
These electrons cause more damage by bombarding other molecules, and many of the resulting ion and free radicals are very reactive.
There are physical breaks in chromosomes caused by the exonuclease bone of DNA.
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