Someday psychology will be a specialty within the field of biology according to some researchers.
For any understanding of current psychological thinking, an understanding of the biological principles relevant to psychology is needed.
The nerve cells are called Neurons.
Our entire nervous system is made up of these cells.
Dendrites are parts of the cell that are outside the body.
Dendrites make synaptic connections with other cells.
The nucleus and other parts of the cell are in the cell body.
The terminal buttons extend from the cell body.
The axon of some neurons is covered by myelin sheath.
The terminal buttons are the branched end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters.
Terminal buttons contain chemicals that allow neurons to communicate.
Like a key in a lock, transmitters fit into the dendrites of neurons.
Neural firing is a process.
The dendrites to the terminal buttons are where electricity and chemicals travel within the cell.
Electricity doesn't move between the neurons.
The different parts of the neuron work in a sequence.
A neuron has a slightly negative charge in its resting state because most of the negative ion are within the cell.
The cell is impermeable and prevents the ion from mixing.
When the terminal buttons of neuron A are stimulated, the reaction begins.
The dendrites of neuron B have neurotransmitters on them.
The threshold is the amount of neurotransmitters received that will cause the cell to become permeable and bring the charge into the cell.
An action potential is the electric message firing.
120 meters per second is how fast it travels.
The terminal buttons of neuron B release their neurotransmitters when the charge reaches them.
If enough neurotransmitters are received by the next cell, the process may begin again.
The all-or-none principle states that a neuron can either fire completely or not.
The neuron will fire if the dendrites receive enough neurotransmitters to push it past its threshold.
The impulse of a neuron is the same every time.
You already know that neurotransmitters are chemicals held in the terminal buttons.
Different types of neurotransmitters exist.
The excitatory nature of some neurotransmitters means that they cause the next cell to fire.
Other neurotransmitters are inhibitory, meaning they prevent the next cell from firing.
There are many different types of neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap.
The threshold and fire are determined by the amount and type of neurotransmitters received on the receptor sites of the neuron.
Every year, researchers identify different types and functions of neurotransmitters.
It is difficult to generalize about what each neurotransmitter does.
Some of the more important types and functions of neurotransmitters can be found in Table 3.1.
Our nervous system gives us information from our senses to our brain.
Our body needs two wires, one for information to the brain and the other for instructions back from the brain to the muscles.
The brain takes information from the senses.
When information reaches the brain, interneurons take the messages and send them to other parts of the brain.
The information from the brain to the rest of the body isfferent.
There are different categories for our nervous system.
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system are the main divisions.
Our brain and spine are part of the central nervous system.
Information about the function of different parts of the brain can be found in a later section.
The center of the spine has a bundle of nerves.
The brain gets information from the rest of the body.
The peripheral nervous system is made up of all the nerves not encased in bone.
The peripheral nervous system is divided into two categories.
Our voluntary muscle movements are controlled by the nervous system.
The muscles that allow us to move are controlled by the brain's motor cortex.
Our body's automatic functions include our heart, lungs, internal organs, and so on.
The fight or flight response that prepares our body to respond to a perceived threat is controlled by the nerves.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are part of the autonomic nervous system.
Our body responds to stress with the help of the sympathetic nervous system.
Our body's response to stress is communicated to the control systems of the organs, glands, and muscles by this part of our nervous system.
Our body has an alert system.
It slows down other functions, such as digestion, in order to conserve resources for a quick response.
After a stress response, the parasympathetic nervous system slows down our body.
The stress response system causes our body to slow down.
The parasympathetic nervous system is similar to the brake pedal slowing down the body's autonomic nervous system.
We can use an example to show how sensory information gets to our brain.
On a late-night quest for a snack, you misplace your toe on a coffee table.
A message is transmitted from your toe to the base of your spine through afferent nerves.
You know you have lost your little toe when the message is transmitted to the brain's sensory cortex through the brain's afferent nerves.
Your motor cortex is sending impulses down the spine to the muscles that control your leg and foot, causing you to hop up and down.
The process described above controls most sensory information and muscle movements.
Humans have a few different reflexes.
When sensory impulses reach the spine, certain reactions occur.
Your leg will jerk without your conscious control if you stimulate the correct area just below your kneecap.
The spine tells your leg to move by processing sensory information.
After the information reaches your brain, you realize your knee has been stimulated, but only after you experience a sensation in your knee.
In response to heat or cold, there is an important reflex.
Our spine will send a message if we touch an object that is hot or cold.
This trait might help keep us from harming ourselves, so it might help us survive, and therefore it is passed on to our children.
The brain may be the most relevant part of biology to psychologists.
Most of human thought and behavior is controlled by the brain.
Many mysteries remain about how the brain works, even though researchers know a lot about it.
Studying how the brain works is difficult because we can't simply observe brain function.
A brain thinking looks like a brain not thinking to our eyes.
Many new details about how the brain works are being discovered by researchers.
We still don't know how the brain controls our thoughts and behavior.
The first challenge of brain research is finding a way to detect brain function.
The methods described are used by researchers.
The front part of Gage's brain was damaged when he was involved in an accident.
Gage's doctor took notes on how Gage's behavior and personality changed after the accident.
Gage was very emotional and impulsive after the accident.
The parts of the brain that were damaged in the accident are involved in emotional control.
The removal of part of the brain is called rending.
This is never done solely for experimentation.
Sometimes surgeons destroy part of the brain in order to cure a condition.
A brain tumor can't be removed without removing part of the surrounding brain.
Doctors watch the patient's behavior after the surgery for changes.
When brain tissue is removed, researchers can try to understand the function of that part of the brain.
The frontal lobotomy is a famous example of lesioning.
In the past, this surgery was used to control mentally ill patients with no other treatment options.
The researchers knew that the patients would calm down and be better able to deal with their symptoms.
Drug treatments have replaced lobotomies.
Brain waves are detected by anEEG.
This information can be used to generalize about brain function, as researchers can examine what type of waves the brain produces during different stages of consciousness.
The different stages of sleep and dreaming can be identified with the use of the EEG.
A sophisticated X-ray is a computerized x-ray.
A detailed three-dimensional picture of the brain's structure is created by using several X-ray cameras that rotate around the brain.
The structure of the brain is the only thing that can be seen in a CAT Scan.
A doctor could use a CAT Scan to look for a tumor in the brain, but he wouldn't know how active different parts of the brain are.
Both scans give you pictures of the brain, and they are similar.
Different technology is used to create more detailed images.
Magnetic fields are used to measure brain density.
The patient is not exposed to cancer-causing radiation due to the fact that the MRI does not use X-rays.
The structure of the brain is more important than the function of the brain.
Researchers can see what areas of the brain are active during certain tasks with the help of the positron emission tomography scans.
The amount of a certain chemical in the parts of the brain that use it is measured by a PET Scan.
Different types of scans are used for different chemicals.
FMRI is a new technology that combines elements of the two scans.
fMRI scans can show details of brain structure with information about blood flow in the brain, tying brain structure to brain activity during cognitive tasks.
Different methods of studying the brain give different types of information.
In some ways, the brain is the most complex organ in the body.
There are hundreds of different parts of the brain.
To keep track of the information, we need to divide the brain into separate categories.
The hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain are the major parts of the brain.
The "old brain" and the "new brain" are the two major divisions of these categories.
When you read about the functions of other structures, some of the descriptions of brain function may seem redundant.
The functions and ways in which the brain works are summarized here for our purposes, but remember that some of the ways in which the brain works are still being investigated.
You should keep the areas and general functions in mind, instead of trying to figure out specific functions and locations.
There are structures in the top part of the spine.
The basic biological functions that keep us alive are controlled by the hindbrain.
The medulla, pons, and cerebellum are important structures within the hindbrain.
Our blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing are controlled by the medulla.
The medulla oblongata is above the spine.
The hindbrain is connected to the midbrain and forebrain by the pons.
The control of facial expressions is also involved.
Our brain is stuck onto the underside of the cerebellum, which is located on the bottom of the brain.
It means little brain.
Tracking a target with our eyes or playing the saxophone are some of the movements the cerebellum coordinates.
Below the forebrain is the midbrain, which is located just above the spine.
The area of the brain that controls important functions is very small in humans.
If you turn your head right now, your midbrain will use muscles in your eyes to keep you focused on the text.
Different parts of the midbrain are important.
This area is between the hindbrain and the forebrain and integrates some types of sensory information.
The reticular formation is a specific structure in the midbrain.
The midbrain contains a netlike collection of cells that control general body arousal and the ability to focus our attention.
We fall into a deep coma if the reticular formation doesn't function.
The forebrain is important to psychologists and to students taking the AP Psychology test.
What we think of as thought and reason is controlled by areas of the forebrain.
The size of our forebrain makes us human, and most psychological researchers concentrate their efforts in this area of the brain.
The brain stem has a thalamus on it.
The cerebral cortex is where some of the sensory signals come from and where they are sent to the appropriate areas in the rest of the forebrain.
The thalamus is next to the hypothalamus.
The small size of the hypothalamus doesn't mean it isn't important.
Body temperature, sexual arousal, hunger, thirst, and the endocrine system are all controlled by the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamus might be involved if you consider yourself a morning person or night person.
The thalamus has two arms.
The hippocampus is where these are called.
The amygdala is a structure near the end of the Hippocampal arm.
The amygdala and hippocampus are important parts of our memory system.
There are no permanent memories in this area of the brain.
This area is used to process memories and send them to other locations in the cerebral cortex for permanent storage.
People with brain damage in this area are unable to retain new information so memories must pass through this area first.
Most people think of the cerebral cortex when they think of the human brain.
There is a thin layer of densely packed neurons on the gray wrinkled surface of the brain.
Most of the structures we have described are covered by this layer.
Our cerebral cortex is full of neurons when we are born, but they are not yet connected.
The cerebral cortex contains dendrites that connect with other neurons.
You have a complex neural web in your brain.
The cerebral cortex's surface is wrinkled to increase the area of the brain.
The more surface area we have within our skull, the more wrinkled it is.
The limbic system is a group of parts of the brain that deal with emotion and memory.
When you study the parts of the brain, you should be able to remember them.
The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres.
The hemispheres look like mirror images of one another, but they exert some differences in function.
The motor function of the right half of the body is controlled by the left hemisphere.
The motor function of the left half of the body is controlled by the right hemisphere.
There is a possibility that the left hemisphere is more active during logic and sequential tasks and the right during spatial and creative tasks.
These generalizations need to be researched further before conclusions are drawn.
There is a specialization of function in each hemisphere.
The operation was started by Roger and Michael.
Since the spoken language centers of the brain are located in the left hemisphere, split-brain patients can't report information only to the right hemisphere.
The cerebral cortex is a collection of different areas.
The parts of the brain that are relevant to the AP test are mentioned here.
Any area of the cerebral cortex that is not associated with receiving sensory information or controlling muscle movements is labeled as an association area.
Specific functions are not known for each association area, but they are active in various human thoughts and behaviors.
Associations are thought to be responsible for complex, sophisticated thoughts like judgment and humor.
The front of the frontal cortex is called the prefrontal cortex and is thought to play a critical role in directing anterior thought processes.
It is said to act as the brain's central executive and is important in predicting consequences, pursuing goals, maintaining emotional control, and abstract thought.
The part of the brain that is responsible for emotional control is believed to be located in this part of the brain.
In the story of Phineas Gage, his limbic system was separated from his brain in an accident.
He lost control of his emotions and became animalistic.
Some left-handed people's language centers are in the right hemisphere, which is one of the two special areas responsible for language processing.
The muscles involved in producing speech are controlled by the area of Paul Broca.
We might not be able to make the muscle movements needed for speech because of damage to the area.
Our voluntary movements are controlled by this part of the cerebral cortex.
The feet and toes of the body are controlled by the top of the motor cortex.
The sensory cortex is located behind the motor cortex in the frontal cortex in the parietal lobes.
The sensory cortex is a thin strip of tissue located in the back of the head.
The top of the sensory cortex receives sensations from the bottom of the body, progressing down the cortex to 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609-
The term occipital is used by some students.
The back of our brain is where our occipital lobes are.
One of the major functions of this lobe is to interpret messages from our eyes in the visual cortex.
The visual cortex in the right occipital lobe processes impulses from the right half of the retina.
Our left occipital cortex is where impulses from the left part of each retina are sent.
Our ears detect the sound of the temporal lobes.
Sound waves are processed by the ears and turned into neural impulses.
The visual cortices are not like the auditory cortex.
The left ear processes sound from the left hemisphere.
The temporal lobe is where the second language area is located.
Both written and spoken speech are interpreted by Wernicke's area.
Our ability to understand language would be affected by this area being damaged.
Our speech doesn't have the proper structure needed for meaningful communication.
The brain is plastic and flexible, but researchers know some of the functions of the cerebral cortex.
Other parts of the brain can perform functions that the cortices and lobes can't.
You already know that the cerebral cortex has a network of dendrites that grow to make new connections.
If one part of the brain is damaged, dendrites might be able to make new connections in another part of the brain that would allow them to take over functions normally performed by the damaged part of the brain.
Dendrites grow quickly in children.
Younger brains are more likely to be able to compensate for damage.
The endocrine system is related to psychology.
The hormones that are produced in this system affect many different processes in the body.
The brain controls the endocrine system.
Some parts of the process are relevant to psychologists.
The rest of the body prepares for fight or flight by releasing adrenaline from the adrenal glands.
The part of our nervous system that controls heart rate and blood pressure was mentioned earlier.
Our sex hormones are produced by women's and men's testes.
Research shows that levels of hormones in men and women are related to gender differences.
There are examples of these differences in the chapter "Developmental Psychology".
Genetics is one of the biological factors that affects human thought and behavior.
The environment where we grow up and live has an effect on our genetic code.
Researchers are trying to figure out how much nature and nurture contributes to human characteristics.
Human cells have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs.
The chromosomes are made up of genetic material.
Some human genes are controlled by certain segments of DNA.
These segments are called genes.
Genes can be dominant or not.
The trait will be expressed if we inherit two genes for it.
The dominant trait is expressed in any combination of genes.
Different combinations of genes create different physical and behavioral tendencies.
Researchers study monozygotic twins since they share all the same genetic material and they want to examine the influence of genes on human traits.
More than 100 identical twins were given up for adoption and raised in different families, according to a famous study.
The study looked at the influence of genetics and the environment on hundreds of traits.
The study found a correlation coefficients of 0.69 on the IQ test for identical twins raised apart and 0.88 for identical twins living together.
The environment has an effect on IQ score since twins raised in the same family have more similar IQs.
The IQs of twins raised apart are correlated, showing that IQ is influenced by genetics.
Twin studies like this one have been criticized.
Twins raised in different families have the same physical appearance.
The psychological environment for both twins may be the same as a result of this physical similarity.
The similarity in environment might explain the high correlations.
Our gender is determined by our chromosomes.
Men and women have different X and Y chromosomes.
A boy or girl are usually the result of an X chromosomes contribution by a man.
A chromosomal abnormality can be caused by chromosomes combining in an unusual way.
Babies with Turner's syndrome are born with a single X chromosomes in the spot usually occupied by the twenty-third pair.
Differences in physical sexual development are caused by Turner's syndrome.
Babies with an XXY pattern are born with Klinefelter's syndrome.
Extreme introversion and minimal sexual development are usually caused by this syndrome.
Mental retardation may be caused by other chromosomal abnormality.
Down syndrome is the most common type.
Babies with Down syndrome are born with an extra chromosome.
A rounded face, shorter fingers and toes, slanted eyes, and some degree of mental retardation are indicative of Down syndrome.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
You feel like you are losing control over your muscles after eating some bad sushi.
Prozac is used to treat mood disorders.
The connection between certain environmental stimuli and brain processes is being investigated by Dr. Dahab.
A 39-year-old male has been brought into your neurology clinic by his wife.
Over the last four months, she has become more alarmed by her husband's behavior.
There are tumors in the brain that should be looked for with a CAT Scan.