New Netherland was created as a profit- making enterprise like Virginia and Massachusetts.
One resident said that everyone here is a trader.
The Dutch were interested in the fur trade, as the European demand for broad- brimmed beaver hats created huge profits.
They established fur trading posts on Manhattan Island and upriver at Fort Orange at the junction of the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers.
In 1626, the Dutch governor purchased Manhattan from the Indians for 60 guilders, or about $1,000 in current values.
The Dutch built a fort at the lower end of the island.
The capital of New Netherland was New Amsterdam, which was located around the fort and DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch
The Dutch West India Company formed a colony called New Netherland.
The colony's governor and advisory council were appointed and there was no elected legislature.
The company controlled the trade with the Indians and all commerce with the Netherlands had to be carried in the company's ships.
The Dutch West India Company decided in 1629 that it needed more settlers outside of Manhattan to protect it from Indian attacks.
His tenants paid him rent, used his gristmill for grinding flour, gave him first option to purchase surplus crops, and submitted to a court he established.
The arrangements to transfer the feudal manor to America met with little success.
Dutch settlements gradually emerged wherever fur was found.
In 1638, a Swedish trading company established Fort Christina at the site of present- day Delaware and scattered settlements up and down the Delaware River.
New Sweden was taken over by the Dutch in 1655.
The Dutch embraced ethnic and religious diversity since their pursuit of profits out weighed on their social prejudices.
Everyone shall remain free in religion and the Dutch Repub lic was created in 1579.
The English took the colony from the Dutch in 1661 and christened it New York City.
500 Muslims lived in New Amsterdam in the 1640s, and they spoke eighteen different languages.
New York City was America's first multiethnic community and immigrant minorities dominated its population.
The Dutch did not show the same tolerance for Native Americans.
Indians were massacred around New Amsterdam by Sol diers.
The indian vil age at Pound Ridge was set ablaze and all the people who tried to escape were killed.
Indians responded in kind to the acts of horror.
There were other limitations to Dutch tolerance.
The first Jewish settlers to arrive in North America were from Brazil.
Peter Stuyvesant, the grim son of a Calvinist minister, refused to accept them.
Dutch officials said it would be unfair to refuse to give Jews a safe haven.
Jews were not allowed to worship in public until the late 17th century.
The American Jewish community grew slowly because of restrictions.
After the first Jewish refugees arrived in 1773, Jews made up only one tenth of the entire population.
The Dutch West India Company did not see anything wrong with slavery.
The company imported enslaved Africans to meet its labor shortage.
New Amsterdam was one of the largest slave markets in America.
The success of the Dutch economy was due in part to its downfal.
The Dutch Empire expanded too slowly.
The Dutch could not control their far flung possessions, as they dominated trade with China, India, Africa, Brazil, and the Caribbean.
European rivals were able to exploit the empire's weak points quickly.
The New Netherland governors were corrupt and clumsy at Indian relations.
The residents of Manhattan were often contemptuous of the government, and they depended upon a small army for defense.
In 1664, Governor Stuyvesant called on the colonists to defend the colony against an English army.
Y surrendered without firing a shot.
James Stuart, Duke of York, led the English conquest of New Netherland.
The entire region was granted to him by his brother, King Charles II.
The Dutch negotiated an unusual surrender agreement that allowed New Netherlanders to retain their property.
New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the duke.
Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley were granted the lands between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers by the Duke of York after the conquest of New Netherland.
Carteret sold out to a group of investors.
There were new settlements in East Jersey.
Puritans from New Haven founded Newark, Carteret's brother brought a group to found Eliz abethtown, and a group of Scots founded Perth Amboy.
In the west, Swedes, Finns, and Dutch were scattered, but they were soon overwhelmed by swarms of English and Welsh Quakers, as well as German and Scots-Irish settlers who had been encouraged by the English government to migrate to Ireland.
In 1702, East and West Jersey became the single royal colony of New Jersey.
The Puritan New England colonies did not promote religious tolerance, but New Jersey did.
The Society of Friends was the most uncompromising and controversial of the religious groups that emerged from the English Civil War.
They insisted that everyone, not just a few, could experience "God's free gospel," a personal revelation from God, what they called the "Inner Light" of the Holy Spirit.
People were essential and good rather than fundamen tal y depraved, and each could achieve salvation through a personal com munion with God.
They demanded complete religious freedom for everyone, promoted equality of the sexes, and discarded all formal religious creeds and rituals.
They kept silent when they were gathered for worship because they knew that the "Inner Light" would move them to say something.
The need to lead lives of service to society was a core principle of the Quakers.
Some early Quakers went barefoot, others wore rags, and a few went naked and smeared their feces on each other to show their commitment to Christ.
The social and religious order was often threatened by the odd behavior of the Quakers.
One of the freys would try to "outpreach" the minister inside the church.
The presence of women at a Friends meeting is indicative of progressive views on gender equality.
After banning Quak ers, New England Puritans pierced their tongues with a red hot rod and executed them.
The Quakers kept coming.
Abuse and martyrdom were often used as proof of their convictions.
According to the French philosopher, getting persecution is a great way of making converts to one's religious views.
A follower of Anne Hutchinson who was banned from Massachusetts, Mary Dyer later became a Quaker and went to visit her jailed brethren.
She was sentenced to death.
Her son convinced the court to release her against her will if she relocated to Rhode Island.
The woman was sentenced to death again.
The settlers of West Jersey encouraged other Friends to migrate to the Delaware River side of the colony.
Penn, the son of wealthy admiral Sir William Penn, was expelled from Oxford University after he criticized the requirement that students attend daily chapel services.
His father had a vendetta against his son.
The younger Penn moved to Ireland to manage the family's estates after living in France for two years.
He was arrested for attending a meeting.
He was jailed several times for his religious beliefs, despite the disapproval of his parents.
Penn was told by the king to settle in America as a means of ridding England of the pagans.
The land was named for Penn's father because it was larger than England.
Thousands of immigrants responded to Penn's offer and a bustling town emerged at the junction of the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers.
Penn referred to it as the "City of Brotherly Love".
Penn's policy of purchasing land titles from the Native Americans made the relations between the two groups unusual.
The settlers and the Native Americans lived in peace for fifty years.
The council members and the assembly of the colony's government were elected by the freemen, who professed their belief in Jesus Christ, despite the fact that the colony's government was drafted by Penn.
Penn, as proprietor, did not have a veto.
Penn wanted to show that a colonial government could operate in accordance with the principles of theQuaker, that it could maintain peace and order, and that religion could flourish without government support.
The Quakers struggled to create a distinctive for its ethnic and religious pluralism.
It went through six governors in Pennsylvania's first ten years.
The Duke of York granted Penn the portion of Delaware that had been the former territory of New Sweden before it was taken over by the Dutch in 1655.
Delaware was granted the right to choose its own assembly after 1704 when it became part of Pennsylvania.
Delaware and Pennsylvania shared the same governor until the American Revolu tion.
Georgia was the last English colony to be founded.
In 1732, King George II gave the land between the Altamaha River and the Savannah River to twenty- one English trustees, who were named in honor of the king.
Georgia was unique among the colonies.
In 1733, a group of people founded the city on the Atlantic coast.
The town was designed by Oglethorpe and featured a grid of roads.
The first Protestant refugees from Austria arrived in 1734, followed by Germans and Swiss.
The early colony had a diverse character thanks to the addition of Welsh, Highland Scots, Sephardic Jews and others.
As a buffer against Spanish Florida, the Georgia colony succeeded, but as a social experiment, it failed.
The initial 500 acres were limited to promote economic equality.
Lawyers, liquor, and the importation of slaves were all banned.
As the colony struggled to become self- sufficient, the idealistic rules fell into place.
The reg ulations against rum and slavery were ignored.
Georgia became a royal colony in 1754.
Georgians exported rice, lumber, beef, and pork to Caribbean islands.
The colony became an economic success and a slave centered society.
The English used a different approach to dealing with the Indians than the French or Dutch.
The fur trade was exploited by merchants from France and the Netherlands.
It enriched the lives of Indians.
The French and Dutch built trading outposts in upper New York and along the Great Lakes in order to get regular supplies of fur.
The English were more interested in pursuing their God- given right to hunt and farm on Indian lands than the French were.
The Puritans tried to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
They forced Indian converts to abandon their religion, clothes, long hair, Indian names, and vil ages, and move to "praying towns" to separate them from their "heathen" brethren.
One of the reasons that Roger Williams of Rhode Island was considered so dangerous was his insistence that all faiths should be treated equally.
Indians who fought to keep their lands were killed or forced out of the English colonies.
In 1636, settlers in Massachusetts accused a Pequot of murdering two white traders, and the English retaliated by burning a Pequot vil age.
The Puritans killed the Indians as they fled.
The militia commander said that God had directed his actions.
The survivors were organized by the Pequot chief.
Hundreds of people, including women and children, were killed when the colonists and their allies set fire to a Pequot vil age in the Con necticut Valley.
The Indians were "frying in the fire and the streams of blood quenching" the flames, but "the victory seemed a sweet sacrifice" according to the governor.
The Pequot Nation's scattered remnants were hunted down.
Some 900 were killed and the rest were taken prisoner.
The layout of the town was carefully planned.
In exchange for African slaves being brought to New England, captured warriors and boys were sold as slaves.
Pequot women were slaves in New England.
Almost fifty Pequot women and children were sent to the Governor by Israel Stoughton, who fought in the war.
"I gave her a coat to clothe her, because I saw that she was the fairest and largest among them," he said.
The Massachusetts Bay colony's first written law allowed Indians taken in just wars to be enslaved for life.
Some Pequots escaped.
The Mohawks were in New York.
He begged them to spare his life.
The English received his head as a peace offering.
Indians and English settlers came to fear each other.
The era of peace ended in 1675.
The chief of the Wampano ag, Metacom, known to the colonists as King Philip, resented the efforts of Europeans to take their lands and convert Indians to Christianity.
The Wampanoags were preparing for war in the fall of 1674, according to a warning given by a Chris tian Indian.
He was found dead in a pond a few months later.
Metacom is depicted in a 1772 engraving by Paul Revere.
The Wampanoags retaliated by beheading, dismembering, and mangling the bodies of the Puritans.
The fourteen months of fighting resulted in more deaths and destruction in New England than any conflict since.
Indian nations fought against each other.
The bands of warriors destroyed twelve English towns.
300 Nar ragansett warriors and 400 women and children were killed in a surprise attack by the colonists within a year.
5 percent of the white male population died during the war.
Thousands of cattle were killed and 1,200 homes were burned.
The Wampanoags and their allies suffered a lot of casualties.
Hundreds of Indians were shipped off to the Caribbean islands as slaves.
New England's Indian population was slashed in half after the war.
English officials forced those who remained into vil ages.
Metacom escaped and was killed by an indian who was fighting with the colonists.
The English were determined to ensure their dominance over Native Americans, so they kept Metacom's severed head atop a pole for twenty years.
Metacom's wife and son were sold into slavery.
Three quarters of the Indians in New England were killed by the end of King Philip's War.
The native peoples of New York City and the lower Hudson Valley were devastated by the same combination of forces that wiped out the Indian populations of New England and the Carolinas.
The value of these belts was woven and exchanged to certify treaties, and they are of particular significance to the Iroquois people.
In the face of barbarous suffering, the indigenous peoples of the colonies came together to rebuild their communities.
In the interior of New York, the Mohawks were convinced by the other Nations to forge an alliance.
The 12,000 mem bers of the Iroquois League were overseen by a council of fifty sachems.
The Great Law of Peace was a constitution that had three main principles: peace, equity, and justice.
Each person was to own a piece of the nation's wealth.
The dependence on nature for survival shaped the religious beliefs of the Algonquians.
Every time the royaneh dealt with an important matter or an emergency, they had to submit the matter to the decision of their people.
The search for furs and captives led to the formation of war parties.
They gained control of a huge area from the St. Lawrence River to Tennessee.
For more than twenty years, warfare raged across the Great Lakes region between the Iroquois (supported by Dutch and English fur traders) and the Algonquians and Hurons.
In the 1690s, the French and their Indian allies destroyed the crops and vil ages of the Iroquois and then spread smal pox to them.
The French and the Iroquois made peace in 1701.
During the first half of the 18th century, they stayed out of the wars between the English and French, which allowed them to create a thriving fur trade for themselves.
11 percent of the American population was made up of enslaved Africans by 1700.
Slavery was different from region to region.
In New England, Africans were a tiny minority.
Because there were no large plantations there and fewer slaves, family slavery prevailed, with masters and slaves living under the same roof.
Slavery was more common in the Carolinas.
By 1730, the black slave population in Virginia and Maryland had become the first in the Western Hemisphere to have a self- sustaining rate of growth.
About 80 percent of the African American slaves in the Chesapeake Bay region were born there.
The largest forced migration in history was the transport of African captives to the Americas.
Most of the 10 million people who made the journey to the Western Hemisphere went to Portuguese Brazil or Caribbean sugar islands.
African slaves spoke as many as fifty different languages.
Some had lived in large kingdoms.
Africans preyed upon other Africans for hundreds of years.
Rival tribes conquered, kidnapped, enslaved, and sold one another.
Slavery in Africa was less brutal than in the Americas.
Slaves and their children were not slaves in Africa.
Europeans were involved in the sale and shipment of cap tives to other nations.
Tell us about how captive Africans were treated during the Middle Passage.
African slave traders brought captives to "slave forts" along the West African coast owned by every European nation during the 17th and 18th centuries.
The captured Africans would be taken to waiting ships owned by European slave traders.
Once purchased, the captives were branded with a company mark, put in chains, and loaded onto British- owned slave ships.
The voyage could last up to six months and they were packed below deck.
The slaves were taken to American ports where they were sold.
Britain was the largest slaving nation in the world.
Slave revolts aboard the floating prisons were not uncommon, and one in six African captives died during the Middle Passage.
Many English people involved in slave trafficking considered their work to be respectable.
James Houston was a slave trader.
The growth of slavery was driven by high profits and justified by widespread racism that Africans viewed as beasts of burden rather than human beings.
Africans were sold to the highest bidder after being treated as property in America.
The painting of a South Carolina plantation shows the survival of African culture among enslaved Americans.
The musical instruments and pottery are from Africa.
Slaves were organized into work gangs on plantations that grew tobacco, sugarcane, or rice.
The slaves were quartered in barracks and given ill-fitting clothes and shoes.
Whites were allowed to use brutal means to discipline their slaves.
They were often sold to the Caribbean islands, where they were often whipped, branded, or castrated.
The enslaved Africans were able to cope.
Some rebelled by sabotaging crops, faking illness or injury, or running away.
Runaways faced terrible punishment if caught.
They faced uncertain freedom if successful.
African Americans forged a new identity while being forced into lives of bondage in a new world.
African influences on American music, folklore, and religious practices were more significant.
Songs, stories, and religious preachings were used by slaves to express their dislike for their masters.
The fundamental theme of slave religion was that God would eventually free them and open the gates to heaven's promised land.
English America became the most populous, prosperous, and powerful of the European empires by the early 18th century.
Many settlers found hard labor and early death in the New World.
They flourished because they were able to exploit Indians.
The English had advantages over their European rivals.
While Spain and France stifled innovation, the English colonies were organized as profit- making enterprises with a minimum of royal control.
In New Spain, where wealthy men controlled vast estates and often intended to return to Spain, many English people went to America.
The English colonies had a greater degree of self- government which made them more cre ative than their French and Spanish counterparts.
England's emphasis on the concentrated settlements of its American colonies was reinforced by geography.
The western expansion of the English settlement stopped at the eastern slopes of the mountains.
The wide expanse of the ocean was used as a highway from Europe to America.
The English colonies were able to evolve from a fragile stability to a flourishing prosperity in a "new world" because the ocean separated old ideas from new.
Europe's colonization of North America differed from England's.
The English model of a two- house Parliament was reflected in the colonial governments.
At a time of religious and political turmoil in England, the colonization of the Eastern Seaboard was strongly affecting colonial culture and development.
The early years of the two towns were not good.
Sugar and rice plantations were developed in the Carolina colonies.
The middle and New England colonies had family farms.
The founding of several colonies was motivated by religion.
Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams.
Maryland was founded to shelter English Catholics.
Europe's persecuted sects were invited to Pennsylvania by William Penn.
All faiths were allowed to settle in New Netherland.
Roger Williams and William Penn treated Indians as equals.
By the end of the 17th century, enslaved Africans were the primary form of labor.
African cultures were fused with other cultures in the Americas to create a native- born African American culture.