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6.8 Shapes of Molecules
Predict whether the bonds are nonpolar d+ or negative end d-.
An arrow is needed to show the ionic, polar, and covalent: dipoles.
Lewis structures can be used to predict three-dimensional shapes.
Our sense of taste and smell is influenced by the shape of the molecule.
The three-dimensional shape of a molecule is determined by drawing its Lewis structure and counting the number of electron groups around the central atom.
The shape of the central atom can be determined from the number of atoms bonding to it.
There are two double bonds attached to the central atom in the Lewis structure for CO2.
The central atom C is attached to two H atoms by single bonds and to the O atom by a double bond in the Lewis structure.
The shape and the electron-group geometry have the same name when the central atom has the same number of electron groups.
There are three electron groups around the central S atom in the Lewis structure, a single bond to an O atom, a double bond to another O atom, and a lone pair of electrons.
Three electron groups have minimal repulsion when they form a geometry.
One of the electron groups has only one pair of electrons.
The shape and electron-group geometry of the central atom have different names.
The central C atom is attached to four H atoms in a molecule of methane.
From the Lewis structure, you might think that CH4 is 90 degree bond angles.
The two bonds connecting carbon to hydrogen are in the plane of the paper.
The wedge and dash represent carbon-to-hydrogen bonds going into the page away from us.
We can look at the four electron groups of the molecule and see if there are any lone pairs of electrons.
The central atom has two or three atoms.
Four electron groups have a geometry.
One of the electron groups is a pair of electrons.
The shape of NH in a PH 3 is determined by the three H atoms and the central N atom.
H bond is leaving us.
The Lewis structure for water has four electron groups which have minimal repulsion.
There are two pairs of electrons in H2O.
The bond angles may be different.
The shape of the molecule is predicted using the VSEPR theory.
The Lewis structure can be drawn.
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