ChAPTER 19 -- Part 5: The Last Great Nomadic Challenges:
Prester John, the Christian monarch of Asia, was seen as a potential ally by European Christians who were cut off from Europe by the Muslim enemy from the rear.
Prester John was thought to be the mythical Chinggis Khan, and the assault on the Muslim Khwarazm empire appeared to confirm that.
Russia made it clear that the armies of the Mongols were not for Christians, but for any other people who stood in their way.
The rulers of Europe were slow to realize the threat the Mongols posed.
The king of Hungary contemptuously dismissed the group of nomads who had fled to his domain after being beaten by the Mongols in Russia when they arrived at his court to demand that he surrender them.
Batu wanted King Bela to submit to the rule of the Mongols.
The Hun garian monarch thought that he was the ruler of a powerful kingdom, while the Mongols were just another band of nomads.
The Mongols had a reason to invade because of his refusal to negotiate.
Their goal was the conquest and pillage of western Europe.
The sound thumping they gave to the Hungarians in 1240 was proof that this goal was doable.
In the south of the Adriatic Sea, the Mongols were free to raid and pillage from Poland and the German states of the north.
The rest of Europe was open to conquest by the Mongols.
The kings and clergy of the western portions of Christendom were beginning to fear the worst, and the Mongol forces disappeared as well.
Batu withdrew in preparation for the struggle for succession after the death of the khagan Ogedei.
The campaign for Europe's conquest was stopped.
It is possible that Batu was satisfied with the huge empire of the Golden Horde that he ruled from his new capital at Sarai on the Volga River.
The Muslim empire of the Middle East had richer lands that the Mongols had found to plunder.
Europe was spared the full fury of the Mongol assault.
India was the only country that was as fortunate as the others.
After the conquest of the Khwarazm empire, it was only a matter of time before they struck against the wealthier Muslim empires of Mesopotamia and North Africa.
The conquest of these areas was the main project of the ruler of the Ilkhan portion of the Mongol empire.
The capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1258 was one of the key results of the assaults on the Muslim heartlands.
The dynasty that ruled the core regions of the Islamic world since the mid-8th century was ended by the murder of the Abbasid caliph.
The victory over the Seljuk Turks in 1243 was important to the history of the region.
The Ottomans would become the next great power in the Islamic heartlands after opening up Asia Minor.
Rest stations for weary merchants and for culture areas were established by the Mon.
What were the main centers of tified outposts for those who were harassed by bandits.
The murder of the caliph Jalut in 1260 left the faithful without a central authority.
The sack of Baghdad was sold to Egyptians.
The violence the ruler of the golden Horde had done to his people was so horrible that Ibn al-Athir apologized to his readers and wished to islam.
They conquered the most populous, the most beautiful, and the best cultivated part of the Middle east in one year.
The Postclassical Period, 600-1450: New Faith and New Commerce overrun by them, everyone spends the night afraid that they may yet appear there, too.
The relief the people of the Muslim world felt when the armies of the Mamluk, or slave, dynasty of Egypt defeated the Mongols in 1260 can be seen in the reverses.
Baibars's forces were able to cross through Palestine with the help of the Christians.
Christian support showed how far the former states had gone in accommodating their Muslim neighbors.
When the battle occurred, Hulegu was engaged in another succession struggle.
He had to rethink his plans for conquest of the Muslim world.
After openly clashing with Berke and learning of Baibars's overtures for an al iance with the Golden Horde, Hulegu decided to settle for the kingdom he already ruled, which stretched from the frontiers of Byzantium to the Amu Darya River in central Asia.
The decline of the Abbasid capital at Baghdad in 1258 had been more pronounced than before.
All pretenses that Baghdad was still the center of the Muslim world were put to rest by the sack of the historical trajectory of each of these major culture areas.
Having conquered the Jin empire, had pioneered.
Baghdad was conquered by the Mongols in 1258.
One of the grandsons of Chinggis Khan, rashid, would play a pivotal role in al-Din's "Jami' al-TAwarikh".
The Mongols fought battle after battle and besieged seemingly innu merable Chinese cities from 1235 to 1279.
His cousins who ruled other parts of the empire were upset after decades of campaigning.
Although he was nearly a decade away from defeating China, he was still able to save the Song dynasty.
He wants to establish more permanent Mongol control.
There were many laws passed to preserve conquerors as the different regions of China came under the rule of the Mongols.
The upper levels of the imperial government used records and correspondence from the Mongols, who were forbidden to learn the Chinese script.
Mon have a distinct culture, social gols were forbidden to marry ethnic Chinese, and only women from nomadic families were selected separateness.