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CHAPTER 9 -- Part 1:
The year of the Lord 1315 will start a famine.
The line of Saint Peter will be execrated.
The century brought a series of disasters that would break down the medieval order that had seemed so secure a century before.
Many people left their lands to search for food because of bad weather at the beginning of the century.
The misery was compounded when a terrible plague swept in from east Asia and wreaked havoc in western Europe, killing over a third of the population and bringing fear and despair to many survivors.
Peasants in the countryside and urban workers staged revolts that further attacked the social order.
In the High Middle Ages, people looked to the church and the pope to bring order and comfort, but in the 14th century the church was split by controversy as several popes ruled at the same time.
England and France fought a violent war as the disasters swept over Europe.
New empires threatened western Europe from the outside.
The feudal, manorial, and many of the intellectual structures of the medieval world were undermined at the end of a century and a half of destruction.
western Europe was transformed by the horrors that swept over it and moved in exciting new directions, rather than the end of the world that many people believed.
lands were drenched.
The town of Douai in medieval Flanders was a prosperous place where men and women could live and work.
Many merchants were rich because of the meager tage industry.
The rains came again.
People spun the wool, others wove it, and others were swept away.
They turned it over to the mer yields and failed.
Famine began in 1315 and, in some parts of Europe, there were good wages to be had until 1322.
Hard times followed by cool and wet summers came during these years.
In 1315, years of bad harvests began.
The shops in Douai no longer had enough food to meet the needs of the people in the town.
According to some reports, in 1322 there was a lot of tension because of rumors that the rich merchants were resorting to cannibalism.
This century was only beginning for many of the cloth workers.
In the legal records of the town, we learn that 18 workers, including two women, were arrested for being susceptible to infections, and that many who did not did not suffer from malnutrition.
The workers "in the full marketplace" had urged an assault on grain merchants to take but an even greater threat appeared.
In the middle of the 14th century, a terrible disease swept through the region, causing suffering and destruction from the east and Europe.
The bur consensus about this epidemic ends here by 1300.
The Middle Ages technology put a strain on medieval this terrifying disease.
There were 2000 km of swellings that turned black.
Death was almost certain once the skin was dark in spots.
The bubonic plague was a cause of some of the most devastating diseases.
The disease was passed from rodents to humans through Europe.
It spread quickly in the summer.
The cold, wet sum of a person's lungs can become pneumonic plague in the winter.
Between 30 and 70 percent of people moved north from Italy to get rid of the plague.
A shocking one-third to one-half of the popula of those with pneumonic plague die from the bubonic plague.
bubonic plague doesn't spread to the dead in modern times.
Modern estimates agree that one-third of the population died, but they disagree on whether it was the Black Death or something else.
Some argue that the number of dead could be as high as 35,000,000.
Paris may have lost half of its deadly pneumonic form due to disease hit lent form.
Several of it's population and Florence as much as four-fiths are suggested by others.
They were weakened from famine.
Those ditches were painful to those who read them.
The mortality began in Siena in May when the dogs dragged them forth.
I don't know where to start, it was cruel and horrible and many bodies were devoured.
No one cried for spending or gambling.
It seemed to almost everyone that one person died and everyone thought that they had escaped and regained the world.
It is impossible for a human to defend himself.
One who did not see such hor would take a long time to write about it.
Each person has lived according to their ribleness over the past year.
Everyone tended victims died almost immediately, and there died in his own caprice.
They Siena 36,000 persons twenty years of age to seek pleasure in eating and drinking, would swell beneath their armpits, and the aged and other people hunting, catching birds and gaming.
They died in their groins and fell over dead in Siena.
Father abandoned child, wife hus and in the suburbs of Siena.
None of the sons could have died.
The suburbs had more than 30,000 men and William M. Bowsky was found to bury the dead for money.
The death bell did not sound.
Many walls and great pits in Siena were abandoned.
They died by hundreds in Sienese territory 3.
The psychological impact of a plague was described in Thinking about Science Tech, which is more important than the actual loss of nology.
One holds his nose.
The physicians are trying to keep the medieval customs.
People didn't realize that the disease brought destruction.
The response was caused bybacteria.
The victims would expect God's help against the plague.
The popular attitudes about the Black Death are shown in this illustration.
A doctor holds his nose and says that bad air was one of the ways the plague spread.
The king's doctors have applied leeches to his body.
The plague was thought to have been caused by agellants because of the pain they caused.
People who beat themselves tried to appease God by staging ritual parades of self- punishment.
The men are carrying a cross and a dragon as a mark of how the Jews were killed.
If they had been a part of it.
If the feudal lords had not been in debt for three times a day, the flagellants would be poor.
Anti-Jewish witnesses said that people who church walls with their blood were dying from the plague.
The movement showed the des tions spread.
More than sixty major Jewish communities were destroyed by 1351.
In their fear, some people turned against their neigh, and in many cities, Jews were accused of bringing communities moved their homes even farther east.
Popes condemn irrational persecution after the persecutions fell.
The population took a heavy toll from the disease and the French kings forced Jews out.
Many of their lands had moved eastward.
The Euro Christian neighbors used the Jews as a focus of their fears because of the larger, meaner Norwe.
A pogrom in Strasbourg that killed thousands of bacillus slowly lost its host pool because the brown rats had thicker fur.
The plague left a legacy of fear even though the Jews were accused of causing it.
Two thousand people were present.
The European tors had money on their minds because of the shortage of labor in the countryside.
Labor requirements are excessive in an effort to farm their lands.
Some countries passed laws freezing earnings after free laborers began to demand higher wages.
"No one shall pay or promise to pay to anyone more wages" is a statute of laborers passed in England in 1351. peasants across Europe were enraged by this policy.
They burned manor houses and killed the people who lived in them.
Black Death and nobles' attempts to impose new fees.
In France, English and French forces burned crops and plundered the countryside.
In a desperate response, peasants killed noblemen, raped their wives and daughters, and stole their possessions.
The English peasant revolt that broke out in 1381 was led by the English preacher John Ball on horseback.
Rural conditions improved despite the uprising failing.
The English revolt added a religious element to the peasant revolts.
Rural violence erupted in various parts of Germany after Spanish peasants revolted in 1 395.
In which Christ would return, the peasants in all regions couldn't hold a better world.
John Ball was the most famous of these preachers.
England called for the over the violence, the labor shortages, and the prevailing throw of the social order.
serfs who couplet attacked the very hierarchical privilege that had owed labor as well as rent were replaced by his most famous ants.
The three orders of medieval society were marked by these new peasants.
When Adam and Eve span, where dom and opportunities to work for their own will be available.
Although the condition of many peasants improved, both worked the soil and the trend was not uniform throughout Europe.
John Ball rides the horse, and another popular opened this chapter indicates that the unrest was not a lim preacher but a countryside unrest.
A banner with the English coat of arms was held by a group of people.
The illustration shows that declining demand for goods led to falling prices, and that some industries suffered.
The lower classes in the towns have the same rights as the royal banners.
The peasants did not blame the king in many towns.
In addition to their misery, they remained loyal to the teenaged tion to Douai.
They blamed Florence.
Some revolts led to the suppression of the revolt.
The labor shortages caused by the high death rates would eventually come with the final PDF to printer.
The rural and urban revolts of the 14th century set off a series of social confl icts.
The church, especially the papacy, was used by many medieval men and women to guide them.
The popes were dealing with their own problems, which undermined people's confi dence in the church.
The taxation of church lands and the clergy's claim to immunity from royal courts came up again in the 14th century.
The French king was stronger than the popes.
The French king ordered his troops to arrest the Pope.
The pope died as a result of the rough treatment he received from his supporters.
Philip IV was able to take advantage of the violence against the church.
He brought pressure on the college of cardinals, which had elected popes since 1059, and they elected his favored French cardinal as pope.
Pope Gregory XI will leave his exile in Avignon and return to Rome.
The king persuaded the pope that the church was in dire need of spiritual leadership when it ruled from Avignon.
The city was in the Holy Roman An, but the French were strong there.
God asked the felt to intervene in this situation.
The new pope, Clement V, obeyed and set up his court in Avignon.
Catherine wrote about serious issues from Rome.
The pope wrote to the bishop of Rome in 1370 and she urged him to return to Rome.
Catherine begged the pope with the shadow of the French king.
He was objected to taking up his duties in Rome.
The decline in the papal prestige was thought to have been caused by people returning to Rome.
Gregory XI died in Rome in 1378 and the Avignon popes expanded their administration and made their collection more volatile.
The citizens of Rome were worried that the col siastical taxes would cause them to choose another pope from France.
It seemed that someone would return to Avignon.
The alliances of the Holy Roman Empire are shifting between Rome and Avignon.
Pope Clement VII was split in half as Christians were divided in their took up residence in the papal palace in Avignon.
Final PDF to printer matters, and they advocated restoring The Englishman and Oxford theologian John ership to the divided Christendom.
Death plundered Europe, the papacy lost its moral that struck at the heart of the orga authority as the ruler of a united Christendom.
Who was a member of the church.
The college of cardinals was suggested by some.
The college was split in two, so the church should suggest that a general council leave it to the kings.
The pope should leave his worldly lordship to the abuses of the church, as he put it.
The clergy that rejected all wealth should lead the church council in resolving the controversies.
The Emperor Constan had been a major renunciation because the church tine had called the bishops together at Nicaea.
Chapter 5 was there.
The new "conciliarists" wanted a lot.
The times tors in the English court seemed to call for radical measures, but this would be a dramatic step.
The council claimed that ideas seemed to encourage acts of treason.
The popes who were most famous for their support of Wycliffe's ideas were dethroned and a new pope was elected.
This should have been Jan Hus.
The problem was solved by a popular preacher and it only made it worse.
The greatest international gathering in the Middle Ages was held at the Council of Constance.
The august body elected a Roman cardinal and deposed the popes.
The Western church was once more united under a single head after the Great Schism was over.
The popes never again had the power that the medieval popes had, and church council met periodically to address changes in the church.
As men and women became dissatisfied with the established church, they sought new ways to approach God so as to address the pressing challenges of the age.
The church that had been criticized frequently throughout the Middle Ages appeared more urgent in this age of crisis.
The image shows the execution of the Czech reformer, Jan Hus, who died while reading the Lord's Prayer.
The brave inquisition spurred a desire for the Czechs to silence the critics.
PDF to printer dominance.
Hus was certain that the invasion of France was his belief.
The English used a new tac of the French before the Council bered them.
The Czech scholar was found guilty of heresy and burned.
In their wars against the Scots in the thir, the English learned of the effective numbers of voices calling for a transformation of the Welsh longbow.
The French cavalry will be shown in Chapter fi ght.
The calls for reform would eventually be heard.
The last chapter in an age in the long spears was when the foot soldiers braced them on the ground to stop the mounted knights.
Some of it crumbled.
England's foot soldiers brought pikes to France to help with famine, plague, revolts, and religious controversy during the long war.
The French cavalry.
The war continued.
The issue that triggered the confl ict was the spread of gunpowder from China.
King Edward III of England, son of a Capetian soldiers, used unreliable guns to shoot his father's daughter.
The supreme court of France claimed that the armorers of Paris tried to make plate armor stronger so that the woman wouldn't be able to claim the crown.
Philip VI of Valois, a cousin of the previous ruler, grew too expensive and ineffective for the new king.
Edward did not dispute the deci warfare and the future was with the infantry.
There were two other reasons for the two kings to fight each other, one of which was the urban revolts in Flanders longbows, which gave Philip VI an excuse to interfere in the lucra Crecy.
When " those who fought" lost, the rich trade continued against feudalism.
The English had secured Flanders and the king wanted to claim the status of liege lord over the important port of Calais.
Edward III held lands in southern France.
The exhausted French were forced to go to war with the English in 1356.
Edward did not believe in the French throne and he should accept Philip as his liege lord.
Edward's lands were declared forfeited by Philip because the French were not willing to allow him to remain in English hands.
The struggle began with stunning.
The strategy of English victories was introduced by him.
The English avoided a major military confrontation and communications across the channel with a naval vic wore down the English forces on the Continent.
What does the pattern of warfare suggest about England and France?
The Battle 2 is traced in the inset.
What mistakes were made by the French in Agincourt?
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