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25.2 Water and Mineral Uptake
The elements that make up the bulk of commercial fertilizers are named.
There are benefits to humus in the soil.
The leaves of the previous year's crops can be left in the field for the winter.
Water and dissolved minerals can enter a root in two different ways.
Water diffuses from the porous cell wall of one cell to the cell wall of adjacent cells as seen in pathway A.
The entry of water past the cell wall is blocked.
In pathway B, water travels from one cell to another through openings called plasmodesmata.
Water and minerals can travel through porous cell walls but must enter the cells through the Casparian strip.
Water and minerals can move from cell to cell.
H+) is removed from the cell by a pump.
This establishes a channel that allows K+) and other positively charged ion to cross the membrane.
Negatively charged mineral ion can cross the membranes by way of a carrier when they co-transport with hydrogen ion.
Minerals can be taken up by either passive or active transport.
Plants have an amazing ability to concentrate minerals until they are more concentrated in the plant than in the surrounding medium.
The concentration of certain minerals in the roots is ten times greater than in the surrounding soil.
Plants such as mulberry, poplar, and canola are used to clean up pollutants.
The plants' genetics allow them to absorb, store, degrade, or transform substances that kill or harm other plants and animals.
"It's an easy solution to pollution problems," says Louis Licht, who runs a company in Iowa City.
Scientists have known for a long time that certain plants can absorb and tolerate toxic substances.
The idea of using these plants on contaminated sites has gained support in the last 25 years.
Plants work on different things.
The mulberry bush is effective on industrial sludge.
Depending on the substance, the plants clean up sites in different ways.
The substance can be broken down by plants around their roots.
The remnants can either be absorbed by the plant or left in the water.
Plants absorb and trap zinc and other zinc-based substances.
Large amounts of nitrates can be removed from the water.
Most trees planted along the edges of farms are intended to break the wind, but there are other uses for them.
The poplars act as vacuum cleaners, sucking up nitrate-laden runoff from a fertilized cornfield before it reaches a nearby brook and other waters.
The large "dead zone" of oxygen-depleted water that develops each summer in the Gulf of Mexico is caused by nitrate outflow from Midwest farms.
Excess water was pumped onto the fields and some of it ended up in the drainage ditches.
Plants and fish accumulate selenium in ponds at the refuge.
Worldwide discoveries of gold are down by 45%.
Normally, prospectors drill in suspected areas, test soil samples, and disturb the environment in promising areas with no guarantees of success.
Gold accumulates in the leaves and bark of plants when it is drawn up in the xylem.
X-ray and chemical analyses revealed the levels of gold when leaves and bark were taken to the lab.
The energy of ATP is only indirectly involved.
Ions can't enter the nonpolar portion of the lipid bilayer because they can't cross the plasma membrane.
Plant cells use energy to concentrate and take up minerals.
If roots are poisoned or deprived of oxygen, mineral ion absorption is diminished.
The result is an ion drive through the cell.
3 and HPO4 are transported with H+.
No energy is required because H+ is moving down.
Plants can be used for cleaning and discovery of minerals, according to a Nature of Science feature.
The upward movement of water transports minerals into xylem and leaves.
Along the way, minerals can enter the cells that need them.
Some reach leaf cells.
When minerals exit xylem and enter living cells, they must cross a selectively permeable plasma membrane.
Two mutualistic relationships help the roots get minerals.
There is a mutualistic relationship between mycorrhizae and fungi.
The some do form associations with a host plant.
The most common types of symbiosis are between plants of the legume family, such as beans, clover, and alfalfa.
Nitrogen fixation is an intensive process that requires special conditions.
The nitrogen-fixing process is disrupted by the presence of oxygen.
The page is low enough to not inactivate important nitrogen fixing enzymes.
Large-scale farming of legume crops depletes the native populations of rhizobia, and farmers must often supplement with pellets containing thesebacteria.
Nitrogen-fixingbacteria live on the roots of plants.
Most of the plants that do not have mycorrhizae are limited to the environment in which they can grow.
The surface area for minerals and water can be increased by the fungus by breaking down organic matter in the soil.
The root gives the fungus with sugars and acids.
Plants are dependent on mycorrhizae.
When mycorrhizae are present, plant growth is better.
There are other ways of acquiring vitamins and minerals.
When dodders, broomrapes, and pinedrops capture and digest insects, they send out rootlike projections called nitrogen and minerals.
Other ways plants get food.
The dodder is a plant that is parasites.
The sundew is a plant that is carnivorous.
There is a strip in a plant.
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