The aim of Mercantilism is to increase state power.
The idea is that a nation's international power is based on its wealth, specifically its supply of gold and silver.
To accumulate wealth, a country had to sell more goods to other countries.
The belief that a nation's international power was based on its wealth, specifically its supply of gold and silver, led to the creation of a system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state.
Colbert created new industries to increase exports.
He created guilds and encouraged foreign craftsmen to come to France.
He raised tariffs on foreign products to encourage the purchase of French goods.
The Company of the East Indies was founded in 1664 to compete with the Dutch for Asian trade.
During Colbert's tenure as controller general, Louis was able to pursue his goals without massive tax increases and without creating a stream of new offices.
The Holy Roman Empire consisted of more than one thousand states.
The attempts to destroy Protestantism in the German lands and to turn the Holy Roman Empire into a real state had failed.
The Austrian Habsburgs turned away from a quest for imperial dominance in order to unify their diverse holdings after losing in central Europe.
During the Thirty Years' War, the Habsburgs won over the Czechs.
The power of the assembly was reduced by Ferdinand II.
He gave the landholdings of Protestant nobles to his supporters.
The success of the Habsburgs led to the recent origin of a large portion of the nobility.
The Habsburgs established direct rule over Bohemia with the support of this new nobility.
The condition of the serfs worsened under their rule.
Protestantism was eliminated by the Habsburgs.
The changes were important in creating a rule of law.
Ferdinand III continued to build power.
He established a permanent standing army and centralized the government in the German-speaking provinces.
Hungary was divided between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs in the early 16th century.
The Ottomans were pushed from most of Hungary and Transylvania by the Habsburgs.
The former kingdom of Hungary was recovered in 1718.
The Hungarian nobility prevented the full development of Habsburg absolutism despite its reduced strength.
With the Habsburgs bogged down in the War of the Spanish Succession, the Hungarians rose in one last patriotic rebellion under Prince Francis Rakoczy.
The Habsburgs agreed to restore many of the traditional privileges of the Hungarian aristocracy in return for the country's acceptance of Habsburg rule after Rakoczy and his forces were defeated.
The Habsburgs made significant achievements in state building by forging consensus with the church and nobility.
In Habsburg lands, a sense of common identity and loyalty to the monarchy grew among elites.
Vienna became the political and cultural center of the empire after German became the language of the state.
Louis moved his court and government to the newly renovated palace at Versailles in the countryside southwest of Paris in 1682.
The Roman gods Apollo and Neptune were depicted in the sculptures in the gardens, which were based on Louis's power.
The gardens' orderliness and symmetry showed that Louis's force extended even to nature, while their terraces and waterworks served as showcases for the latest techniques in military and civil engineering.
All high-ranking nobles were required to spend at least part of the year in residence as the palace became the center of political, social, and cultural life.
Every moment of Louis' day was covered by an elaborate set of rituals, from waking up and dressing in the morning to retiring at night.
These rituals were not trivial.
Favoritism for government offices, military and religious posts, state pensions, and a host of other benefits were some of the privileges the king had.
A system of patronage, in which a higher-ranked individual protected a lower-ranked one in return for loyalty and services, flowed from the court to the provinces.
Louis was able to get cooperation from powerful nobles.
Women played a central role in the patronage system even though they were denied public offices and posts.
The king's wife, mistresses, and other female relatives recommended individuals for honors, advocated policy decisions, and brokered alliances.
French culture grew in international prestige with Versailles as the center of European politics.
Palace building became a Europe-wide phenomenon after Louis's rival European monarchs followed his example.
The limitation of government by law is what England and the Netherlands have evolved toward after the crises of the 17th century.
There is a balance between the authority and power of the government and the rights and liberties of the subjects.
A form of government in which power is limited by law and balanced between the authority and power of the government, on the one hand, and the rights and liberties of the subject or citizen, on the other.
After decades of civil war, the English briefly adopted a form of government in which there is no monarch and power is in the hands of the people.
The English settled on a constitutional monarchy in 1688.
England retained a monarch as the head of government but had an elected parliament.
The Dutch independence from Spain was formally recognized in 1648.
Estates were elected to hold supreme power in the republican form of government.
The English and Dutch were both examples of restraint of power and the rule of law.
A form of government in which there is no monarch and power is in the hands of the people.
James Stuart ruled England as James I in the 16th century.
James believed that a monarch had a divine right to his authority and was responsible only to God.
James I and his son Charles were worried about legislative constraints on their power.
Between 1603 and 1640, bitter squabbles erupted between the House of Commons and the Crown.
Relations between the king and the House of Commons were strained by religious issues.
Many English people were dissatisfied with the Church of England in the early 17th century.
Calvinist wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church of Roman Catholic elements, including crown-appointed bishops, elaborate ceremonials, and wedding rings.
Charles I married a French Catholic princess and supported the policies of the archbishop of Canterbury William Laud.
Severe weather conditions and bouts of plague caused economic distress in this period.
The Church of England's reform movement advocated purifying it of Roman Catholic elements such as bishops, elaborate ceremonials, and wedding rings.
The Puritans came primarily from the artisan and lower middle classes according to these twelve engravings.
Most of the Puritans followed the traditions of the Church of England, but the governing classes and peasants made up a smaller percentage.
Charles dodged direct confrontation with his subjects by not calling Parliament into session from 1629 to 1640, instead financing the realm through extraordinary stopgap levies considered illegal by most English people.
When Scottish Calvinists revolted against his religious policies, Charles was forced to get funding for an army.
The House of Commons passed the Triennial Act in 1641 because they were angry with the king's behavior and sympathetic with the Scots' religious beliefs.
The Commons threatened to abolish the bishops after Laud was impeached.
The measures were reluctantly accepted by King Charles.
Rebellion in Ireland caused the next act in the conflict.
The Catholic gentry of Ireland led an uprising against the British in 1641.
Without an army, Charles could not respond to the Irish rebellion or come to terms with the Scots.
Charles left London and began to raise an army.
The power of the king was at stake in the English civil war.
Parliament's army defeated the king's forces at the Battles of Naseby and Langport in the summer of 1645 after three years of fighting.
Both sides waited for a decisive event as Charles refused to concede defeat.
The army was led by Oliver Cromwell, a member of the House of Commons and a Puritan.
Cromwell's troops captured the king in 1647 and then dismissed members of the Parliament who opposed their actions.
Charles was put on trial for high treason in 1649.
Charles was beheaded on January 30, 1649.
The monarchy was abolished with the execution of Charles.
Legislative power rested in the surviving members of Parliament, while executive power was lodged in a council of state.
The army that had defeated the king was in charge of the government.
The rule of Cromwell was a form of military dictatorship.
Reflecting Puritan ideas of morality, Cromwell's state forbade sports, kept the theaters closed, and suppressed the press.
All Christians except Roman Catholics had the right to practice their faiths, even though Cromwell favored some degree of tolerance.
Cromwell led an army to reconquer Ireland in August 1649.
Following Cromwell's reconquest, the English banned Catholicism in Ireland, executed priests, and took land from Catholics for English and Scottish settlers.
Cromwell died in 1658 and his son succeeded him.
The English were fed up with military rule.
They were ready to restore the monarchy by 1660.
Charles II was the son of Charles I.
The houses of Parliament and the church were restored.
James II succeeded his brother Charles, causing fears of a return of Catholicism.
Parliament and the Church of England wrote to Mary and her Dutch husband, Prince William of Orange, inviting them to invade and take the throne of England.
James II, his queen and their infant son fled for France in 1688 after William arrived with five hundred ships and twenty thousand soldiers.
William and Mary were crowned king and queen of England in 1689.
The English called the events of 1688 and 1689 the Glorious Revolution because they believed it replaced one king with another with barely any bloodshed.
William's arrival caused riots and violence across the British Isles and in North American cities such as Boston and New York.
In Scotland, there were uprisings by supporters of James.
The two sides fought a war in Ireland from 1689 to 1691.
William's victory at the Battle of the Boyne sealed his accession to power.
The idea of divine-right monarchy was destroyed by the revolution in England.
Mary and the men who brought about the revolution.
The law could not be suspended by the Crown once it was made in Parliament.
It was necessary for parliament to be called at least once every three years.
The independence of the judiciary was established by the Bill of Rights.
The Catholics could not possess arms.
Catholics couldn't inherit the throne.
Freedom of worship was granted to Protestant dissenters but not to Catholics.
Parliament passed a bill that limited the powers of British monarchs and was accepted by William and Mary.
Locke believed that a government that protects the rights of life, liberty, and property becomes a tyranny.
He argued that the people have the right to revolt.
Although the events of 1688 and 1689 brought England closer to Locke's ideal, they did not constitute a democratic revolution.
The upper classes were represented in Parliament.
The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands won their independence from Spain in the late 16th century.
The treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War recognized the independence of the Republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
Dutch ideas and attitudes shaped a new and modern world.
The United Provinces developed its own model of a constitutional state.
The Dutch established a republic, a state in which power rested in the hands of the people and was exercised through elected representatives.
The Swiss Confederation and several city-states of Italy and the Holy Roman Empire were examples of republics in early modern Europe.
In the Dutch, regents were wealthy businessmen who dealt with domestic affairs in each province's assembly.
The power was held by the provincial Estates.
The States General and the republic were usually dominated by Holland, the province with the largest navy and the most wealth.
The stadholder was appointed in each province.
The reigning prince of Orange usually held the office of stadholder in several of the seven provinces of the republic.
There were disagreements between supporters of the House of Orange and those of the republican Estates.
The Dutch had the highest standard of living in Europe due to global trade and commerce.
All classes of society ate well because of high salaries.
The moral and ethical bases of Dutch commercial wealth were thrift, frugality, and religious tolerance.
In early modern Europe, Jews were accepted in Dutch business and culture.
The Dutch Republic's tolerance seemed to be the right way to go and contributed to profits.
Europe was gripped by economic, social, and political crises during the 17th century.
The outbreak of the Thirty Years' War was caused by a long period of cold, wet weather and religious and political conflicts.
The Netherlands saw increased agricultural productivity, growing involvement in world trade, and a thriving urban culture.
The Dutch Republic and Flanders gave birth to a new style of painting that celebrated the virtues of everyday life, family, and the domestic sphere.
The genre painters depicted realistic scenes set in family homes, taverns, and other mundane locations, despite the fact that earlier generations of artists had reserved their highest praise for paintings that re-created great historical and mythological events.
They avoided representing idealized heroes and dramatic imagery in favor of the earthly pleasures of eating, drinking, and gathering with friends and family in cozy interiors, often furnished with the exotic wares pouring in from the East.
The values and pastimes of the wealthy bourgeois merchants and other urban elites were reflected in the genre paintings.
The painting style of the Dutch golden age became very popular and spread to the rest of northern Europe.
Around 1615, the painter of this image, Gonzales Coques, was born.
He became a master of the Antwerp painters' guild in 1640, the year he produced this painting.
Coques contributed to the development of genre painting by specializing in portraits of individuals and families.
List the details in the painting.
In 1690, a Jewish woman in the small town of Hameln in Lower Saxony wrote her memoirs.
She wanted to distract her mind from the terrible grief she felt over the death of her husband and to give her twelve children a record.
A source for scholars was created out of her pain and heightened consciousness.
The Thirty Years' War ended two years before she was born.
The Jews were kicked out of the city in 1649 by the merchants.
When she was twelve, her father betrothed her to Chayim, and they married when she was fourteen.
Chayim earned his living by dealing in precious metals and making small loans of pledges.
The work required constant travel to larger cities, markets, and fairs in bad weather.
Chayim had a discussion with his wife about his business dealings.
A friend asked if he had any last wishes.
"None," he said.
My wife knows everything.
He had been his friend, full business partner, and wife for thirty years.
They had thirteen children, twelve of which survived their father.
Chayim had predicted that Gluckel would launch the boys in careers and provide dowries for the girls.
Her family, the Jewish community of Hameln, and the Jewish communities into which her children married were all part of her world.
Her social and business activities took her across Europe, from Amsterdam to Berlin, from Danzig to Vienna.
She was proud that Prince Frederick danced at her daughter's wedding.
The prosperity of Chayim's businesses allowed the couple to keep up to six servants.
Her culture was steeped in Jewish literature, legends, and mystical and secular works.
She relied on the Bible.
Her language has a lot of references to the Scriptures.
Consider the ways in which Gluckel was both ordinary and extraordinary.
European overseas trade and colonization are covered in Chapter 16.
Spain's monopoly was challenged by England, France, and the Netherlands in the early 17th century.
They created colonies in North America, slave plantations in the Caribbean, and trading posts in West Africa and Asia.
The mercantilist economic doctrine dictated that foreign trade was a zero-sum game, in which one country's gains necessarily meant another's losses.
The Dutch Republic in the 17th century was built on its commercial prosperity and republican system of government.
herring fishing profits were put into shipbuilding by the Dutch to dominate the European shipping business.
They took aim at Portugal's trade empire.
In 1599 a Dutch fleet returned from a voyage to South East Asia with a huge cargo of spices.
The people who invested in the expedition made a 100 percent profit.
The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602 to capture the spice trade from the Portuguese.
The Dutch won commercial concessions in return for assisting Indonesian princes in local conflicts.
In the first half of the 17th century, they gained control of the western access to the Indonesian archipelago.
They gained political domination over the archipelago.
The Dutch were willing to use force more brutally than the Portuguese were.
They were able to expel the Portuguese from the East Indian islands in the 1660s because of these factors.
The company established a colony in Cape Town on the southern tip of Africa as a location for its Asian fleets.
The Dutch wanted to play a role in the Americas.
The Dutch West India Company was founded in 1621 and sought to open trade with North and South America.
The company captured or destroyed hundreds of Spanish ships, seized the Spanish silver fleet in 1628, and claimed portions of Brazil and the Caribbean.
The Dutch established a large number of trading stations on the west coast of Africa as a result of their intervention in the slave trade.
The nation that was known as a bastion of tolerance and freedom was one of the main operators of the slave trade.
Dutch wealth was dependent on the Dutch merchant marine, which was manned by forty-eight thousand sailors.
The goods were taken to the port of Amsterdam.
The Dutch were the first to challenge Iberian dominance overseas.
The colonies of England, France, and the Netherlands were colonized through companies with monopolies over trade and settlement.
As the Spanish explorers learned from the Reconquista, the English expansion drew on their own experience conquering and colonizing Ireland.
In exchange for several years of work and the promise of greater opportunity, indentured servants were granted free passage to the colony.
Carolina was established in the 1670s by English settlers from the Caribbean island of Barbados.
A harsh racial divide was imposed during the late 17th century when enslaved Africans replaced indentured servants as laborers on tobacco and rice plantations.
The first settlers on the coast of New England had more religious reasons for seeking a new life in the colonies.