ChAPTER 5 -- Part 3: Classical Civilizations in the Eastern
This is a union of nature.
People become honest when I enjoy peace.
People become rich when I don't do anything.
People return to the good and simple life when I have no desires.
The gentleman cherishes virtue while the inferior man does good.
It is not possessions if it becomes evil.
The educated man thinks of sanctions while the inferior man thinks of personal favors.
The nature of man is evil.
It is located on the northwest fringe of the former Zhou empire.
The fine arts and refined manners of most of the state's rivals were behind the Qin state.
From the 5th century b.c.e., the rulers of Qin initiated several critical social and political enduring centralized bureaucracy changes that greatly increased their ability to wage war against their snobbish rivals to the east and major extensions of the northern.
The nomads in check, the Qin state supported experimentation with bronze and ironworking.
The Qin freed peasants from bondage to local lords and allowed them to claim their own land in order to encourage them to use new tools.
These measures increased the resource base on which Qin's political ambitions were dependent.
The emperor tried to build a regular bureaucracy supported by the dynasty and totally loyal to it because he wanted to free the peasants.
If well-paying positions were to be had, migrant shi administrators were willing to put up with bad manners.
The state fought many wars in order to survive and conquer the rest of China.
The peasants it freed and gave land made the armies larger than those of rival states.
The superior bureau cracy of the Qin made it easier for its forces to be supplied and organized.
The map shows the boundaries of successive Chinese dynasties, and it shows that the early Han empire was larger than the first one to unify the core regions of Chinese civilization.
The Qin were more recep tive to military innovations than their adversaries.
They were one of the first states to use massed cavalry.
The crossbow came into widespread use in the late Zhou era.
Good leadership and free peasants, who may have felt that they had more to fight for than the vassals and serfs of other king doms, made the Qin armies famous for their ferocity and speed.
Several statesmen who came to be known as the Legal ists were justified in their efforts to break the power of their vassals.
The founder of the Legalist school of political philosophy was a former ruler of the Qin Dynasty.
Their main goal is to enhance the strength and wealth of the state.
He had little to say about the ruler's duty to promote their welfare because the people existed to serve the state.
He believed that the main responsibility of the state was to enforce strict laws with harsh punishments.
The ruler should not have been above the law.
The crown prince's tutor had his cheek tattooed in order to punish him for breaking the law.
At the end of his life, he discovered that he too was subject to the strict laws.
He fled the court after the ruler died and sought refuge at a roadside inn.
It was against the law for a traveler to stay at an inn without a permit.
The old man was turned out by the innkeeper, who faced death if he did not obey the law.
After leading an unsuccessful rebellion, he was tied to chariots and ripped apart.
A man of ambition, energy, and courage, he was also a megalomaniac who did not tolerate any challenge to his rule.
Hundreds of shi were buried alive because of complaints from his officials.
Those who leaked news from the palace were harshly reprimanded.
When his gripe about the use of carriages by his courtiers became known throughout the capital, no one would admit to repeating the offhand remarks he had made in confidence, and Shi Huangdi executed all who could have heard them.
When he was told that a chain of hills was blocking the critical wet mon soons, he had the trees on them cut down and their surface dyed red, the color associated with criminals in China.
By the year 221 b.c.e., Shi Huangdi had finished the work of his predecessors.
He had defeated the states that had opposed the Qin and unified China.
All regional fortresses were destroyed and the weap ons of local warrior groups melted down in order to strengthen his hold over his vast domain.
36 prov inces were created in the place of the former states.
Regional commanders and overlords were replaced by bureaucrats.
Surviving princes and aristocrats, as well as very wealthy merchants, were ordered to live in the capital at the site of Shi Huangdi's huge palace.
weights and measures were uni fied throughout the empire, and the emperor's scribes developed a standard script and coinage.