It was nothing but a lie for the millions of Cahokia.
Humans have been around for around 1100CE.
They spoke hundreds of languages and created thousands of different cul for the Cahokia.
The Native Americans followed the Mounds State Historic Site.
They created different art forms and spiritual values.
Kinship ties bring people together.
The arrival of Europeans and the resulting global exchange of people, animals, plants, and microbes unleashed the greatest biological terror the world had ever seen.
It was the beginning of one of the most consequential developments in human history.
The history of the United States begins with the first Americans.
The stories of Native Americans tell of their creation and reveal the shape of their belief.
Sky Woman fell into a watery world and formed the first man out of clay and the first woman out of a feather.
The southeastern peoples' beginnings are found inside the great Mother Mound earthwork, Nunih Waya, in the lower Mississippi Valley, and the Nahua people's beginnings are found at the Seven Caves.
The scholars studied artifacts, bones, and genetic signatures to piece together a narrative that claims the Americas were once a "new world" for Native Americans as well.
Much of the world's water was trapped in continental glaciers during the last global ice age.
In the 20th century, ice sheets stretched across North America as far south as Illinois.
With so much of the world's water captured in these massive ice sheets, global sea levels were much lower and a land bridge connected Asia and North America.
Between twelve and twenty thousand years ago, Native ancestors crossed the ice, waters, and exposed lands between the continents of Asia and America.
At the northwestern edge of North America, the mobile hunter-gatherers traveled in small bands, exploiting vegetable, animal, and marine resources.
The ancestors paused for fifteen thousand years in the expansive region between Asia and America.
Some ancestral communities moved eastward.
Evidence shows that human activity began at Monte Verde at least 14,500 years ago.
The dental, archaeological, linguistic, oral, ecological, and genetic evidence shows a great deal of diversity, with many groups migrating over thousands of years.
The great salmon-filled riv ers were exploited by Native groups in the Northwest.
Prehistoric herds move according to seasonal patterns.
There were different murals by the geography.
The groups spoke hundreds of words with Robert Dafford.
The Kings Crossing depicts massive population growth across the continent.
The Eastern and Western Hemisphere appeared in 1000CE and agriculture may have arisen between nine thousand and five thousand years ago.
The hemisphere's first Murals were developed in Mexico and Central America by using domesticated maize.
In the warm and fertile Gulf Coast of Mexico, corn was high in calories and easily dried and stored.
Corn is an important spiritual and cultural place in many Native communities.
Between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean, there were fertile river valleys where agriculture flourished.
Corn, beans, and squash are known as the Three Sisters and provide the necessary nutrition for cities and civilizations.
Native communities were able to manage their forest resources by burning underbrush and clearing the ground for planting the Three Sisters.
In shifting cultivation, farmers cut the forest, burn the undergrowth, and then plant seeds in the ashes.
When crop yields began to decline, farmers moved to another field and allowed the land to recover before cutting the forest and restarting the cycle.
In areas with difficult soil, this technique was particularly useful.
Native American farmers use hand tools rather than plows in the fertile regions of the Eastern Woodlands.
The rich soil and use of hand tools enabled effective and sustainable farming practices, producing high yields without overburdening the soil.
For some, agriculture may have led to a decline in health.
The analysis of remains shows that societies transitioning to agriculture often had weaker bones and teeth.
Some members of the community could pursue other skills if farmers produced more food.
Religious leaders, skilled soldiers, and artists can devote their time to other activities.
North America's indigenous peoples had a wide range of characteristics.
European arrangements differed from sui tual practices.
Most Native Americans didn't think of the supernatural and the natural in the same way.
Their world was both accessible and tangible because of spiritual power.
The NeW World American people were bound together by kinship.
The majority of people lived in small communities.
The Native cultures believed in matrilineal ancestry, which means family and clan identity went along the female line.
fathers joined mothers' extended families and sometimes even a mother's brothers took a more direct role in child-raising than biological fathers Men's identities and influence often depended on their relationships to women, and mothers wielded enormous influence at local levels.
European cultures generally had less sexual freedom than Native American cultures.
Women often chose their husbands, and divorce was a relatively simple process.
Europeans' notions of property rights differed from those of Native peoples.
The same rule applies to land and crops as it does to tools, weapons, or other items that were used.
Groups and individuals used violence or negotiation to exclude others.
The right to use land did not mean the right to permanent possession.
Some of the artistic and communicative technologies that Native Americans used are still used today.
The Ojibwes used scrolls to record medical treatments, recipes, songs, and more.
The Eastern Woodland peoples made sites of complex ceremonial meaning by weaving plant fibers, embroidered skins, and modeling the earth.
On the Plains, artisans wove buffalo hair and painted on buffalo skins, while in the Pacific Northwest, weavers wove goat hair into textiles.
The histories of the Maya, Zapotec, and Nahua ancestors were carved into stone.
Two thousand years ago, some of the largest culture groups in North America were centered in the current-day Greater Southwest and Mississippian groups along the Great River.
The growth of large early societies such as Tenochtitlan in the Valley of Mexico, Cahokia along the Mississippi River, and the desert areas of the Greater Southwest can be attributed to previous developments in agricultural technology.
Chaco Canyon in northern New Mexico was home to ancestors of the Southwest Puebloan people.
As many as fifteen people began constructing these highly sand individuals in the Chaco Canyon complex in the New defensible cliff Mexico.
Massive residential structures were built from sandstone and housed hundreds of people before they were abandoned.
One building stretched over two acres and rose five stories.
The rooms were decorated with copper.
Cre important role in a variety of ceremonies and was an important Commons ter for the Puebloan life and culture.
Generations carefully mapped the stars and Germany as they tied the spirituality of the puebloan to AttributionShare Alike 3.0 the earth and the heavens.
In 1130 there was an extreme fifty-year dry spell.
Chaco Canyon was empty.
New groups, including the Apache and Navajo, entered the territory.
The Mississippian peoples of the American Midwest and South may have been affected by the same dry spell.
One of the largest civilizations north of Mexico was developed by the Mississippians.
Cahokia, the largest Mississippian settlement, had a population of between ten thousand and thirty thousand.
It was larger than contemporary European cities.
No American city would match Cahokia's peak population levels until after the American Revolution.
The city was centered on Monks Mound, a large hill that was ten stories high and 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 Life and death in Cahokia were linked to the movement of the stars, sun, and moon, and their ceremonial earthwork structures reflect these important structuring forces.
Cahokia was politically organized around chiefdoms, a system that gave leaders both secular and sacred authority.
The city's size and influence suggest that it relied on a number of lesser chiefdoms under the authority of a paramount leader.
Frequent warfare preserved social stratification.
War captives formed an artist's rendering of a part of the economy in the North American Southeast.
People were not held as property in American slavery.
Instead, appeared in the 12th century.
Prepared by Native Americans, slaves were seen as people who lacked kinship net Bill Isminger.
Slavery was not always a permanent condition.
Mark Esarey could become a fully integrated member of the artwork by Greg Harlin.
Adoption or marriage could allow a slave to join the community.
Slavery and captive trading became a historic site.
Many Native communities gained or maintained power through this way.
Cahokia experienced a "big bang" that included a shift in all things political, social, and ideological.
The population grew 500 percent in one generation and new people groups were absorbed into the city.
By 1300, the once-powerful city had gone through a series of strains.
New research emphasizes mounting warfare or internal political tensions instead of ecological disaster or slow depopulation.
Population growth placed too much of a burden on the land.
Others suggest that the demand for fuel and building materials led to erosion.
Recent evidence, including defensive stockades, suggests that political turmoil among the ruling elite and threats from external enemies may explain the end of the once-great civilization.
The Mississippi River was an important trade route, but all of the continent's waterways were important for transportation and communication.
Cahokia became a key trading center due to its location near the Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri Rivers.
These rivers stretched from the Great Lakes to the American Southeast.
Seashells traveled over a thousand miles to reach the center of the civilization.
The community at Poverty Point, Louisiana, DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch The Serpent Mound site near the Ohio River has obsidian from Mexico and sheets of mica from the Allegheny Mountains.
The Teotihuacan used turquoise from the Greater Southwest.
Many Native American societies lived in smaller, dispersed communities to take advantage of rich soils and abundant rivers and streams.
In the Hudson and Delaware River Watersheds in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, the bottomlands were farmed by the Delawares.
Their hundreds of settlements, stretching from southern Massachusetts through Delaware, were bound together by political, social, and spiritual connections.
The NeW World Dispersed and relatively independent, Lenape communities were bound together by oral histories, ceremonial traditions, consensus based political organization, kinship networks and a shared clan system.
Society was organized along matrilineal lines as a result of kinship.
A married man joined his wife's clan.
The selection of leaders, called sachems, may have been influenced by the authority of women in the area.
The long-term stability and resilience of Lenape communities can be attributed to the dispersion of authority, small settlements, and kin-based organization.
The sachems obtained their authority by showing their wisdom and experience.
This was different from the other Mississippian cultures.
Large gatherings existed as dispersed communities and their leaders gathered to make big decisions.
Men, women, and elders were included in the larger councils.
The lack of defensive fortifications near the communities of the Lenapes convinced archaeologists that the group avoided large-scale warfare.
The skills of the farmers and fishers of the Lenape societies DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch Along with the Three Sisters, the women planted tobacco, sunflowers, and pumpkins.
They cultivated a lot of plants from trees and harvest fruits and nuts from them.
The migration patterns of animals and fowl were a part of the diet of the Lenapes and they organized their communities to take advantage of the growing seasons.
During the planting and harvesting seasons, large groups of Lenapes coordinate their labor and take advantage of local abundance.
They organized seasonal fish camps to catch fish.
The rushes found along the streams, rivers, and coasts were used to make nets, mats, and baskets.
They built their homes in some of the most fertile and abundant lands in the Eastern Woodlands and used their skills to create a stable and prosperous civilization.
The first Dutch and Swedish settlers met the Lenapes in the 17th century and immediately sought their friendship.
Their lives depended on it.
In the Pacific Northwest, the Kwakwaka'wakw, Tlingits, Haidas, and hundreds of other peoples, speaking dozens of languages, thrived in a land with a moderate climate, lush forests, and many rivers.
The peoples of this region valued salmon according to its value.
Totem poles, canoes, oars, and other tools are decorated with images of salmon.
The image of the fish was a representation of prosperity, life, and renewal.
The survival of salmon populations was ensured by sustainable harvesting practices.
The First Salmon Ceremony was celebrated by the Coast Salish people.
Men commonly used nets, hooks, and other small tools to capture salmon as they migrated upriver to spawn, as elders closely observed the size of the salmon run and delayed harvesting to ensure that a sufficient number survived to spawn and return in the future.
Massive cedar canoes, as long as fifty feet and carrying as many as twenty men, enabled extensive fishing expeditions in the Pacific Ocean, where skilled fishermen caught halibut, sturgeon, and other fish, sometimes hauling thousands of pounds in a single canoe.
Potlatches are elaborate feasts that were created by the combination of population density and surplus food.
Potlatches celebrated weddings and births.
The hosts showed their wealth and power by entertaining guests with food, artwork, and performances.
The more the hosts gave away, the more power they had.
Some men saved for decades to host an extravagant potlatch that would give them greater respect and power within the community.
Many people in the Pacific Northwest built plank houses out of cedar trees.
The five-hundred-foot-long Suquamish Oleman House, or Old Man House, rested on the banks of Puget Sound, and giant cedar trees were carved and painted in the shape of animals or other figures to tell stories and express identities.
Totem poles became the most recognizable artistic form of the Pacific Northwest, but peoples also carved masks and other wooden items, such as hand drums and rattles, out of the region's great trees.
Native cultures differed greatly despite being similar.
The New World was marked by differences.
Native Americans lived in keeping with the hemisphere's many climates by the time Europeans crossed the Atlantic.
Intricately carved masks can be found in cities and small bands.
Some were seasonal and others settled permanently.
Native peoples had long histories and Heaven Mask used natural cultures that developed over thousands of years.
The arrival of Europeans changed everything.
The New World was reached before Columbus.
They sailed as far east as Constantinople and settled the beak of heaven mask in the ments as far south as North Africa.
There were limited colonies in Kwakwaka'wakw.
Around the year 1000, LeifErikson reached Wikimedia.
The colony failed.
The Norse were driven back to the Unported because of Cul Attribution 3.0.
The wealth, power, and knowledge of Asia were linked by the Crusades to Europe.
Europeans rediscovered Greek, Roman, and Muslim knowledge.
The long-term European expansion was fueled by ChapTer 1.
Asian goods flooded European markets.
Europeans battled one another for trade supremacy.
European nation-states were under the control of powerful kings.
The financial and military administration necessary to maintain nation-states were created by a series of military conflicts between England and France.
The two most powerful kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula were consolidated by the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile.
The Spanish crown expelled Muslim Moors and Iberian Jews from the Iberian peninsula in 1492, just as Christopher Columbus sailed west.
These new nations wanted to access the wealth of Asia with new power.
Italian traders commanded the Mediterranean and con trolled trade with Asia.
At the edges of Europe, Spain and Portugal paid higher prices for Asian goods.
They wanted a more direct route.
They looked to the Atlantic.
Portugal invested a lot in exploration.
Prince Henry the Navigator invested in research and technology at his estate on the Sagres Peninsula of Portugal, which was a rich sailing port.
The caravel, a ship well suited for ocean exploration, was developed in the fifteenth century by Portuguese sailors.
Both were technological breakthrough.
The caravel was a rugged ship with a deep draft capable of making lengthy voyages on the open ocean and, equally important, carrying large amounts of cargo while doing so.
The Portuguese built forts along the Atlantic coast of Africa in the 15th century, inaugurating centuries of European colonization there.
New profits from Portuguese trading posts funded further trade and colonization.
By the end of the fifteenth century, trading posts spread across the vast coastline of Africa and by the end of the 16th century, Vasco da Gama was able to reach India and other lucrative Asian markets.
The Iberian sailors were forced to sail west into the open sea because of the ocean currents and tech nology.
The Spanish and Portuguese stumbled on the Canary Islands.
The nobility of Europe consume a profitable luxury item called Georg Braun.
It required tropical temperatures, daily rain, and a fourteen-month growing season.
On the Atlantic islands, the Portuguese found new land for sugar production.
Patterns of human and ecological destruction followed.
The island natives known as the Guanches were enslaved or died soon after Europeans arrived.
Portugal's would-be planters needed laborers to cultivate the crop.
African slaves were looked at by Portuguese merchants who had recently established good relations with African kingdoms.
Slavery existed in African societies.
African leaders traded war captives who forfeited their freedom in battle for Portuguese guns, iron and manufactured goods.
From bases along the Atlantic coast, the largest in modern-day Nigeria, the Portuguese began purchasing slaves to work in the sugar fields.
The first great Atlantic plantations were born.
Spain was at the forefront of maritime technology.
The sailors had become masters of the caravels.
Spain yearned for its own path to empire as Portugal consolidated control over African trading networks.
The Portuguese established forts and colonies on islands and along the rim of the Atlantic Ocean by the 15th century.
The earliest known map of European exploration in the New World was created by an anonymous cartographer to argue for the greatness of his native Portugal.
Columbus, a skilled Italian-born sailor who had studied under Portuguese navigators, promised just that opportunity.
The world was round in the 15th century.
The earth's vast size would doom even the greatest caravels to starvation and thirst before they ever reached their destination if they sailed west from Europe.
Columbus believed it was possible because he underestimated the size of the globe by two thirds.
He persuaded Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to give him three small ships, which set sail in 1492.
Columbus was both wrong about the size of the earth and lucky that two large continents were in his path.
The Arawaks lived in the Caribbean islands.
They fished and grew food.
Columbus said they were innocents.
He reported to the Spanish crown that they are very gentle and without knowledge of what is evil.
Your highness may think that there is no better person in the world.
Columbus couldn't find much when he came for wealth.
The Arawaks wore small gold ornaments.
Columbus left thirty-nine Spaniards at a military fort on Hispaniola to find and secure the source of the gold while he returned to Spain with a dozen captured and branded Arawaks.
Columbus arrived and worked to outfit a return voyage.
Spain's motives were clear from the beginning.
Columbus promised the Spanish crown gold and slaves.
Columbus said that with fifty men, they can all be made to do what is required of them.
Columbus had seventeen ships and over one thousand men to return to the West Indies.
He promised to reward them for their investment, even though he thought he had landed in the East Indies.
The Spanish embarked on a campaign to extract every ounce of wealth from the Caribbean when material wealth was slow.
The Arawaks were decimated by the Spanish.
Bartolome de Las Casas traveled to the New World in 1502 and later wrote, "I saw with these Eyes of mine the Spaniards for no other reason, but to gratify their bloody mindedness, cut off the hands, nose, and ears, both of Indians and Indian."
Las Casas described European barbarities.
The Spaniards abandoned theirs because they thought the natives had no humanity.
The Arawaks were ravaged by violence and exploitation.
The Indian population fell apart.
The entire island of Hispaniola was wiped out within a few generations.
Las Casas estimated the island's pre-contact population at three million.
They were gone in a few years.
Las Casas wondered.
Native Americans were unprepared for the arrival of Europeans despite the diversity of their populations.
European cruelties were magnified by biology.
Native Americans were free from the terrible diseases that ravaged populations in Asia, Europe and Africa because they were cut off from the Old World.
Their blessing became a curse.
Many died in war and slavery, but millions died in epidemics after Europeans arrived.
Though ravaged by disease and warfare, Native Americans forged middle grounds, resisted with violence, accommodated and adapted to the challenges of colonialism, and continued to shape the patterns of life throughout the New World for hundreds of years.
Europeans kept coming.
Spanish wealth-hungry people poured into the New World after news of the Spanish conquest spread.
One soldier said that they came here to serve God and the king, and also to get rich.
Mercenaries raced to capture the human and material wealth of the New World.
The empires of Central and South Americadwarfed anything found in North America as Spain's New World empire expanded.
The Maya built massive temples, sustained large populations, and constructed a complex and long- lasting civilization with a written language, advanced mathematics, and stunningly accurate calendars.
Maya civilization collapsed before Europeans arrived because of unsustainable agricultural practices.
The Aztecs, the most powerful Native civilization ever seen in the Western Hemisphere, only emerged after the eclipse of the Maya.
The Aztecs moved south from northern Mexico.
Tenochti Share Alike 4.0 tlan is an awe-inspiring city built on a series of natural and man-made International.
The world's largest cities were not as large as Tenochtitlan.
The ruins of the Templo Mayor can still be found in the center of Mexico City.
When the Spaniards arrived, they could not believe how many buildings they saw, all built on a lake and connected by causeways and canals.
When we saw so many cities and villages built in the water and other great towns on dry land, we were amazed and said that it was like the enchantments.
The Aztecs ruled an enormous swath of central and southern Mexico.
They ruled their empire through a network of subject peoples who paid regular tribute to them and provided troops for the empire.
European conquerors lusted after the Aztecs' wealth, while unrest lingered beneath the Aztecs' imperial power.