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12.7 Heating Curve for Water
In this section, we first look at the major features of a phase diagram, then look at navigating within a phase diagram, and finally look at the phase diagrams of selected substances.
The phase diagram for water is an example of a major feature of a phase diagram.
The temperature is displayed in degrees Celsius.
The main features of the phase diagram are regions, lines, and points.
The phase diagram shows the conditions under which each of the three main regions is stable.
The liquid is the stable state under any of the temperatures and pressures in the phase diagram of water.
In general, low temperature and high pressure favor the solid state, high temperature and low pressure favor the gas state, and intermediate conditions favor the liquid state.
A sample of matter that is not in the state indicated by its phase diagram for a given set of conditions converts to that state when those conditions are imposed.
The steam that is cooled to room temperature condenses to liquid.
The phase diagram shows a set of temperatures and pressures at which the substance is in equilibrium between the two states on either side of the line.
The vaporization curve is the curve for water that we examined in Section 12.5.
The liquid and gas states of water are stable at any of the temperatures and pressures along this line.
Water and its Vapor are in equilibrium at 100 degC and 760 torr pressure.
In the phase diagram for water, the triple point anywhere is 4.58 torr.
The solid, liquid, and gas states of water are stable under these unique conditions.
The phase diagram can show changes in the temperature or pressure of a sample of water.
We can heat a block of ice at 1.0 atm and -25 degC.
The complete transition from solid to liquid is required to cross the fusion curve.
Vaporization moved to gas.
We move down the line and approach the vaporization curve.
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