Zhuangzi was an iconoclastic in his political ideas.
In a parable, a wheelwright tells a duke that books are useless because all the men in them are dead.
The duke threatened to execute the wheelwright if he couldn't explain his remark.
I have been growing chiseling wheels for seventy years.
The men of old were not able to transmit what they had.
To put it another way, truly skil ed craftsmen respond to situations spontaneously; they don't analyze or reason or even keep in mind the rules they have mastered.
The validity of verbal reasoning is denied by this strain of thought.
Confucianism can be seen as a rejection of many of its basic premises.
Over the course of Chinese history, many people felt the pul of both Confucian and Daoist ideas and studied the writings of both schools.
Con fucianism is often thought of as sternly masculine, but it is actually more accepting of feminine principles.
People who were drawn to the arts were also drawn to Daoism.
The idea of the ruler who can have great power by being himself without stituting anything was popular with rulers.
In the fourth and third centuries b.c.e.
The rulers were ready to listen to political theorists who claimed expertise in the accu mulation of power.
Confucians claimed that strong government depended on the moral qualities of the ruler and his officials, but political theorists argued that the need for strict laws was more important than the moral qualities.
Legalism was the basis for China's bureaucratic government.
The aristocracy was abolished by him.
Social distinctions were to be based on the number of enemy heads cut off in battle.
In place of the old fiefs, the Qin king created counties and appointed officials to govern them.
Migrants from other states were recruited with offers of land and houses.
Farmers were allowed to buy and sell land to encourage them to work hard.
Ordinary farmers were freed from serf-like obligations to the local nobility, but direct control by the state could be even more burdensome.
Taxes and labor service obligations were high.
vagrants could be forced into labor service if they did not have a permit.
Everyone in the group of five and ten families was responsible for any crime committed in the group.
Legalism's greatest influence was found in Han Feizi.
Han Feizi had no interest in Confucian values of goodness or ritual.
He warned the rulers of the political pitfals.
When the ruler trusts someone, he is under that person's control.
The ruler should control subordinates by controlling competition and keeping them ignorant of his intentions.
His relationships with others should not include warmth, affection, or candor.
The officials and common people would be easy to govern if rulers made the laws clear and the punishments automatic.
Work hard and fight wars are essential to the goal of establishing hegemony over all the other states, because Uniform laws get people to do things they would not otherwise be inclined to do.
The laws of the Legalists were designed to make it hard for officials to regulate the common people.
Penalties were imposed on infractions.
Legalism did not value debate or private opinion.
The ruler should not allow others to question his laws.
In Legalism, there were no laws that were independent of the wishes of the rulers, and no laws that could limit rulers' actions in the way that natural or divine laws could.
Some Legalist ideas were adopted by several states, but only the state of Qin followed them.
Chapters 7 and 8 discuss the extraordinary but brief success Qin had with these policies.
The greatest long-term impact on Chinese civiliza tion was made by Confucians, Daoists, and Legalists, but the Hundred Schools of Thought also included everyone from logicians, hedo nists, and utopians to agriculturalists who argued that no one should eat who One of the most important schools of Chinese thought was natural philosophy.
Yin is the feminine, dark, receptive, yielding, receptive, and the other the masculine, bright, and assertive.
The poles are not distinct entities or opposing forces.
These models based on observation of nature were extended to explain phenomena such as illness, storms, and earthquakes, as well as social phe nomena, such as the rise and fal of states and conflict in families.
Un wanted things happen when the balance between the two is disturbed.
Records of the popular religion of the time -- astrological manuals, handbooks of lucky and unlucky days, medical pre scriptions, exercises, and ghost stories -- have been unearthed by archaeologists in recent decades.
China's transition from Neolithic farming villages to a much more advanced civilization with writing, metalwork, iron coinage, crossbows, and competing states occurred centuries later than in Mesopotamia or India, but by the Warring States Period China was at the same stage of development.
Although many elements of China's civilization were clearly invented in China, such as its writing system, its method of bronze casting, and its Confucian philosophy, it also adopted elements that spread across Asia, such as the cultivation of wheat, the horse-driven chariot, and horseback riding.