They didn't attract enough Roman Catholics to develop a self- sustaining economy.
Most of the servants who came to the Catholic colony were Protestants.
The Calverts offered servants and settlers a quiet life on small farms.
Maryland succeeded more quickly than Virginia because it focused on growing tobacco from the beginning.
The long coastline along the bay gave planters easy access to shipping.
The colony's early development was hampered by sectarian squabbles.
Catholics and Protestants were as violent as they had been in England.
Ceci lius Calvert was worried that Cromwell and the Puritans would lose the colony after King Charles I was executed in 1649.
To avoid a catastrophe, the colony's ruling council appointed Protestants and wrote a revolutionary docu ment that welcomed all Christians regardless of their beliefs.
The Puritans were able to install themselves in positions of control in Maryland because of Calvert's efforts.
The right to worship was stripped from Catholic colonists in 1654.
At one point, the Puritans became persecutors themselves and drove Calvert out of his colony.
The Maryland colony may have been destroyed if it wasn't for grow ing tobacco.
Catholicism was effectively banned in Maryland in 1692.
Marylanders would be guaranteed religious freedom again after the American Revolution.
English settlements were emerging north of the bay.
The New England colonies were supposed to be religious utopias based on the teachings of John Calvin.
English Puritans founded Dedham, Massachusetts in the 1630s, promising to live together in peace and harmony while obeying God.
Middle-class families in New England were able to pay their own way across the Atlantic and were not indentured servants.
Small farmers, merchants, seamen, and fishermen were the majority of male settlers.
The southern colonies attracted more women than New England.
New England was a better place to live because of its shorter growing season and less fertile soil.
Malaria ravaged the southern colonies, but settlers avoided it because of its cold climate.
The life expectancy in the 17th century was about forty five years because of the high infant mortality rate.
During the 1630s, only a small number of people arrived in New England as part of the Great Migration.
By 1700, New England's white population was larger than that of Maryland and Virginia.
The Pilgrims and Puritans who arrived in Massachusetts in the 17th century were willing to sacrifice everything in order to create a model society.
The code of laws and government structure are based on biblical principles.
The Puritans limited church membership to those who had been chosen by God to be saved.
They hoped that their blameless lives and holy communities would provide a beacon of righteousness for England to follow.
The first permanent English settlement in New England was established by a group of English investors.
The joint stock company wanted to make profits by exporting the colony's abundant natural resources, so they agreed to finance settlements in exchange for furs, timber, and fish.
Puritan Separatists, who were forced to leave England because of their refusal to worship in Anglican churches, were the first to accept the company's offer.
The Separatist saints wanted each congregation to govern itself, rather than being ruled by a bureaucracy.
They named their children because of their spiritual devotion.
Mary called her two youngest children Love and Wrestling.
Two daughters were named Fear and Patience.
Separatists, mostly simple farm folk, had first gathered in an English vil age, only to see their brethren imprisoned and hanged.
Tired of being "clapped up in prison," they left England and moved to Hol, where they worried that their children would become Dutch.
They created a holy community in America because of these concerns.
Each colonist was to be given a share in the enterprise in exchange for seven years in America.
The ship was blown off course to Cape Cod southeast of Boston, Massachusetts.
The English port city from which they had embarked would be called the hil side settlement.
They would also experience a "starving time" of famine, cold desperation, and frequent deaths.
Sailors navigate by the stars on a sixteenth century oceangoing vessel.
The Mayflower Compact was not a democracy.
The saints gave themselves the right to vote.
They would have to wait for their civil rights.
The civil government grew out of the church government, and the members were the same.
The General Court of Plymouth Plantation, which chose the governor and his assistants, met as the signers of the Mayflower Com pact.
Only church members were eligible to join the General Court and other property owners were later admitted as freemen.
As the colony grew, the General Court became a legislative body of elected representatives from the various towns.
Smal pox devastated the Wampanoag Indian vil age where the colonists settled.
Fourteen of the eighteen married women were included in the first proof.
The grieving survivors were able to continue because of the discovery of stored Indian corn.
The colonists were taught how to grow corn, catch fish, gather nuts and berries, and negotiate with the Wampanoags.
The failure of Plym to become a thriving holy community was lamented by the Governor in the 1630s.
After ten years, the Massachusetts Bay Colony overtook thePlymouth colony's population of 7,000.
The Massachusetts Bay Puritans were different from the Pilgrims and the new colony was intended to be a holy place for Puritans.
They wanted to purify the Church of England from within.
The Puritans limited church membership to those who could demonstrate that they had received the gift of God's grace.
In 1629, King Charles I gave a royal charter to the Massachusetts Bay Company, a group of Calvinist Puritans led by a lawyer with twelve children.
The new colony was supposed to be a haven for Puritans and a model Christian community.
They would create a City upon a Hil, as he said, rowing the phrase from Jesus's Sermon on the Mount.
"We must live up to our destiny because the eyes of all people are on us," he said.
The company charter did not require that the joint- stock company maintain its home office in England.
The Puritans took the royal charter with them so that they could govern themselves.
Most of the Puritans in Massachusetts arrived as family groups.
The ships arrived at Salem on June 12.
The Puritans named Boston after the English town of that name because they built a vil age at the mouth of the Charles River.
The local Indians had been swept away by the smal pox.
Disease had no boundaries.
In eight months, 200 Puritans had died and 100 had returned to England.
It wasn't for the faint- hearted to plant colonies.
Through many trials, the Puri tans were sustained by submissiveness to divine.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was able to thrive because of a flood of additional settlers after 1633.
Money, skil s, and needed supplies were brought by them.
Winthrop believed that the government should enforce religious devotion and ensure social stability.
He and other Puritan leaders disliked the idea of democracy and preferred law and order.
The Puritan leaders exercised their newfound freedom by making sure that everyone else followed their example.
People loved to argue and judge their neighbors' conduct in New England.
John didn't embrace religious tol eration, political freedom, social equality, or cultural diversity.
He and the Puritans were against other religious views.
Catholics, Anglicans, and Baptists were punished, imprisoned, and sometimes executed.
The Puritans fined any ship captain who brought the "madmen" and their "frantic passions" to Massachusetts Bay.
The un- Christian policy of refusing to allow the poor, vicious, and infirm to join their community was established by Massachusetts Bay.
Puritans who spoke out against religious or political beliefs were quickly condemned.
Anne Hutchinson, the strong- willed wife of a prominent merchant, raised thirteen children, served as a midwife, and hosted meetings in her home to discuss sermons.
Hutchinson was blessed with a quick wit and vast biblical knowledge, but he criticized mandatory church attendance and the power of ministers.
She claimed to know which of her neighbors had been saved and which were damned.
The General Court hauled a pregnant Hutchinson in 1637.
Anne Hutchinson refused to acknowledge any wrongdoing.
The ability to cite chapter and verse bibli- male leaders of Boston is against charges of heresy.
As the trial continued, Hutchinson was eventually lured into convicting herself by claiming direct revelations from God.
Hutchinson and her family relocated to an island south of Providence, Rhode Island.
The journey took it's tol.
Hutchinson's critics in Massachusetts Bay claimed that the "monstrous birth" was God's way of punishing her.
Her spirits did not recover.
Puritans had disagreements that led to the founding of new colonies.
Four Englishmen are shown fighting over the Bible in a cartoon from the 17th century.
The city was under Dutch control.
Hutchinson, her six children, and nine others were all Indians.
The Indian raid may have been encouraged by Winthrop.
The transfer of the Massa chusetts Bay Colony's royal charter was a unique venture in colonization.
New England had no powerful lords or bishops.
All the property owners were called free men and were part of the Massachusetts General Court.
The freemen had no power until the "assistants" were elected the governor and deputy governor.
In 1634, the freemen turned themselves into the General Court, with two or three of them resenting each town.
The final stage in the democratization of the Massachusetts Bay government was when the General Court became a House of Assis tants, corresponding to the House of Commons.
The decisions had to be approved by a majority in each house.
Puritans fled religious persecution in order to protect their liberties in America.
Membership in a Puri tan church replaced the purchase of stock as a means of becoming a freeman in Massachusetts Bay.
The New England Puritans had a vital zeal and godliness that shaped their society.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was created by people dissatisfied with Puritan life and theology.
Young Roger Williams, who arrived from England in 1631, was the first to cause problems because he was a Separatist perfectionist who criticized "impure" Puritans for not abandoning the "whor ish" Church.
The King of England had no right to grant Puritans the ancestral lands of Native Americans according to Williams.
Williams championed individual liberty and criticized the treatment of Indians.
He claimed that the Puritan leaders were mistaken in requiring everyone to attend church.
Williams held a brief pastorate in Salem, north of Boston, and then moved south to Separatist Plymouth, where he continued to question the right of English settlers to take Native American lands.
He came to love and support the Indians in Salem.
His belief that a true church must only include those who had received God's gift of grace convinced him that it was not possible unless it included his wife and himself.
Williams was sent to England by the General Court because of his "dangerous opinions" and threatened the very foundations of New England Puritanism.
He and his wife slipped away during a bitterly cold snowstorm and found shelter among the Narragansett Indians.
He studied their language, defended their rights as human beings, and in 1636 he bought land from them to establish Providence, at the head of Narragansett Bay.
It was the first permanent settlement in Rhode Island and the first in America to allow complete freedom of religion as well as a "Democratical" form of government.
For the time, there was no requirement for church membership.
Newcomers could be admitted to full citizenship by a majority vote, and the colony welcomed all who fled religious persecution in Massachusetts Bay.
Rhode Island was viewed as a refuge for rebels and radicals by Puritans in Boston.
The Dutch visitor said the new colony was the sewer of New England.
Rhode Island's involvement with the slave trade made it the most profitable part of New England by the 1670s.
Other New England colonies had a more normal start.
In 1636, the Rever end Thomas Hooker led three church groups from the Boston area to Connecticut, where they formed a colony and founded the town of Hartford.
The Bay Colony had an iron grip on politics.
He believed that all men should be able to vote.
In 1639, the Connecticut General Court adopted the Fundamental Orders, a series of laws that provided for a "Christian Commonwealth" like that of Massachusetts, except that all freemen could vote.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason were granted territory north of Hartford in 1622.
In 1629, Mason took the southern part of New Hampshire and Gorges took the northern part, which became the Province of Maine.
Massachusetts took over New Hampshire in the early 1640s and extended its authority to the scattered settlements in Maine in the 1650s.
English judges decided against Massachusetts in two lawsuits.
New Hampshire became a royal colony, but Massachusetts continued to control Maine.
Maine was incorporated into Massachusetts in the final year of the Massachusetts charter.
The New England colonies began as a result of the planting of Christian values in America.
After the first wave of Puritans established the community of faith, colonial leaders realized that not everyone was equally committed to the faith.
The Puritan utopia was fractured by the ten sions between those pursuing profits and those preaching piety.
English settlers established two great beachheads on the Atlantic coast in 1640, with the Dutch colony in between.
After 1640, the struggle between king and Parliament in England diverted attention from colonization, and migra tion to America dwindled for more than twenty years.
The mother country left its American colonies alone during the English Civil War and Puritan dictatorship.
The New England Confederation was formed to fight against the Dutch, French, and Indians.
The confederation behaved like a nation.
The Dutch were accused of inciting Indian attacks and in 1653 it declared war.
Massachusetts was far from the scene of trouble and failed to cooperate.
Virginia and Maryland were against the dictatorship.
In 1649, Virginia bur gesses denounced the Puritans' execution of King Charles and claimed that his son, Charles II, was the lawful king.
After the monar chy was restored in England, William Berkeley returned as governor and the England's Colonies reverted to royal control.
The Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 led to the restoration of previous governments in the colonies.
The Massachusetts charter was reconfirmed in 1662 and the first royal char ters for Connecticut and Rhode Island in 1662 and 1663.
All three corporations were self- governing.
The city still had no charter.
New Haven was absorbed into Connecticut.
The English were interested in colonial expansion after the Restoration.
The English conquered New Netherland and settled Carolina in twelve years.
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware are new states that were claimed by the Dutch.
They were given to men who were loyal to the monarchy during the civil war.
In 1663, King Charles II granted a vast parcel of land south of Virginia to eight prominent supporters, who became lords proprietor of the region they called Carolina, from the Latin spelling of Charles.
The southernmost mainland colony in the 17th century consisted of two separate areas that became the colonies of North Carolina and South Carolina.
The northernmost part was settled in the 1650s.
For half a century, there was an isolated cluster of farms along the shores of Albemarle Sound.
Life there was hard.
In 1685, a young woman wrote that they had suffered "all sorts of evils" since arriving in Carolina.
Carolina would be separated from the northern and southern colonies in 1712
More promising sites in southern Carolina were the focus of the eight lords proprietor.
They recruited English planters from the Caribbean island of Barbados to speed up their efforts to make money from growing sugarcane.
The English developed a sugar plantation system based on the hard labor of enslaved Africans.
The easternmost island in the Caribbean, the "king sugar" colony, was dom inated by a few wealthy planters who used their power in the mother country to work their slaves to death.
More than 35,000 enslaved Africans were hosted by Barbados by 1670.
English planters on the island had to buy a lot of slaves because the mortality rate for slaves was twice as high as in Virginia.
England's Colonies should look for estates of their own.
Many of them took the chance to settle Carolina and bring the plantation system to the new American colony.
The first English settlers in South Carolina arrived in 1669 at Charles Town.
Half of the colonists came from island colonies in the Caribbean over the next twenty years.
South Carolina was a slave based colony from the beginning.
Many enslaved Africans from the Caribbean colonies were brought to Carolina to clear land, plant crops and herd cattle.
The government of Carolina was born out of a unique document, the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, drafted by one of the eight proprietors, Lord Anthony Cooper.
Large land grants to prominent English men were encouraged by the provisions for a formal nobility.
Headrights were given to every immigrant who could afford to cross the Atlantic.
Carolina had a greater degree of religious freedom than any other colony except Rhode Island because of the Fundamental Constitutions.
In 1712 the Carolina colony was divided into North and South.
South Carolina became a royal coly in 1719.
When North Carolina became a royal colony in 1729, it was also under the proprietors' rule.
Rice became the dominant crop in coastal South Carolina because it was suited to the hot, humid growing conditions.
The planters preferred enslaved Africans to work their plantations because they had been growing rice for generations.
Huge forests of yellow pine trees provided lumber and other materials for shipbuilding in both Carolinas.
Tar Heels came to be called them due to the fact that pine trees could be boiled to make tar, which was needed to waterproof the seams of wooden ships.
Trade with Indians was one of the easiest ways to make money in Carolina.
English merchants traveled southward from Virginia into the Piedmont region of Carolina, where they developed a prosperous commerce in deerskins.
Between 1699 and 1715, Carolina exported an average of 54,000 deerskins per year to England, where they were transformed into leather gloves, belts, hats, work aprons, and bookbindings.
English traders bought slaves.
They knew that the best slave catchers in India were other Indians.
Spanish conquistadores and French and Dutch colonizers had a lot of activity when they had captive Indian workers.
For centuries, England's Colonies captured and enslaved other indigenous peoples in order to justify and expand the practice.
The majority of enslaved workers in the American colonies were Indians, not Africans, and the tradition of overworking them combined with diseases and warfare to decimate their societies.
Between 1670 and 1715, as many as 50,000 Indians, mostly women and children, were sold as slaves in Charles Town, with many of them being shipped to distant lands.
Slave traders preferred Africans over Native Americans in the Carolinas because Indians were more likely to escape across familiar territory.
More enslaved Indians were exported than Africans were imported, and thousands of others were sold to "slavers" who took them to islands in the Caribbean.
The Carolina proprietors in London did not pay attention to the fact that they were making too much money from the slave trade.
The growing commerce in people triggered bitter struggles between rival Indian nations and led to unprecedented violence.
German and English settlers were attacked in 1712 by the Tuscaroras of North Carolina.
North Carolina authorities appealed to South Carolina for aid, and the colony dispatched two expeditions made up of Indian allies of the English.
The Cherokees were taken from Carolina to England in 1730.
The surviving Tuscaroras joined the Iroquois.
There was conflict in South Carolina after the Tuscarora War.
The Yama felt betrayed when white traders paid them less than they wanted.
The Yamasees had debts to traders of 100,000 deerskins.
Yamasees were cheated by white traders to recover their debts.
More than 100 whites were killed in an attack by Yamasees in April 1715.
The governor ordered all white and black men to defend the colony.
The Yamasee War ended in 1717 after the governor bribed the Cherokees.
The Yamasees fled to Florida.
Hundreds of whites were killed and dozens of plantations were destroyed.
Private trading with Indians was banned by the colonial government.
The Yamasee War did not end infighting among the Indians.
The English were delighted by the blood feud between the Creeks and Cherokees for the next ten years.
One Carolinian said that they had to figure out how to hold both tribes as friends for some time, and help them cut one another's throats without offending either of them.
Between 1700 and 1730, the indigenous population in the Carolinas dwindled from 15,000 to 4,000.
The Carolinas began as opportunities to make money.
Unlike New England, their primary purpose was to make money.
They wanted to trade with the Indians, buying deerskins and captive Indians to sell as slaves.
The middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania were part of the Netherlands, which became a republic with 2 million people.
The Dutch had the largest merchant fleet in the world by 1670.
They had become one of the most tolerant societies in Europe and England's fiercest competitor in international commerce.
The New Netherland colony, which was older than the New England settlements, was removed from the side of the English colonies in London by King Charles II.
Hudson sailed up the "wide and deep" river that would be named for him in New York State after crossing Delaware Bay in 1609.
Hudson and his crew were invited to land by a group of Indians.
Visitors to the Indians were offered furs that were even more exciting.
The first highways in America were along the rivers along the Atlantic Seaboard, which gave access to the furs and timber coveted in Europe.
The Hudson River became one of the most important waterways in America because it was wide and deep enough for oceangoing vessels to travel far north into the interior.
In 1625, Dutch traders bought 5,295 beaver and otter skins and shipped them to the Netherlands.