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11.1 Gregor Mendel
Through the patterns of inheritance first described by Mendel, you will learn that phenylketonuria takes two nonfunctional copies of that gene before you are affected.
observable patterns of inheritance will be introduced in this chapter.
Genetics explains the stability of inheritance and variations between offspring from one generation to the next.
Every culture has tried to explain inheritance patterns.
An understanding of these patterns has always been important to agriculture.
Most plant and animal breeders acknowledged that both sexes contribute to a new person.
They believed that parents of contrasting appearance always produced offspring of intermediate appearance.
Red and white flowers reappeared in future generations because the breeders wrongly attributed instability in the genetic material.
The concept of inheritance didn't help Charles Darwin, the father of evolution.
Darwin's theory of natural selection was based on the fact that populations had variation that allowed for certain individuals to have an advantage.
As individuals became more alike in their characteristics, variation would decrease.
At the time he was researching genetics, he was a substitute natural science teacher at a local high school.
He was able to develop several laws of inheritance.
He was one of the first scientists to apply mathematics to biology.
His background in mathematics may have led him to apply statistical methods to his breeding experiments.
He was a careful, deliberate scientist who followed the scientific method very closely and kept very detailed, accurate records.
He conducted many preliminary studies with various animals and plants.
The theory of inheritance is called a particulate theory because it is based on the existence of minute particles.
Reshuffling the same genes from generation to generation is called inheritance.
The law of segregation and the law of independent assortment describe the behavior of particulate units of heredity as they are passed from one generation to the next.
Many experiments of geneticists and biologists have supported the theories of Mendel, who had no knowledge of genetic material.
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