The Moche civilization was able to carve out a larger empire than the Chavin.
The newer civilizations built large public plazas with temples, palaces, and elaborate stonework.
They used terraces and other methods to increase the amount of arable soil, even at high altitudes.
There was enough food to feed armies and thousands of industrial workers.
From that family, the name was extended to all of its peak around 1500 and held peoples living in the Andes valleys.
The word "inca" was used by the people to identify their together.
The term is used for both the ruler and the people.
The force that transformed the culture was religious ideology, and it also created pressure for imperialist expansion.
The health and prosperity of the state was believed to be affected by the ruler's descent from the sun god.
People were thought to be linked to the sun-god by dead rulers.
The corpse of the ruler was kept in a sacred and magnificent chamber and preserved as a mummy.
The descendants of a dead ruler managed his lands and sources of income and used the revenues to care for his mummy, maintain his cult, and support them.
The next ruler had to find new sources of income because of the high costs of maintaining the cult.
The cult of royal mummies helped expand the power of the Inka.
Courageous nobles who were victorious in battle and gained new territories for the state could expect lands, additional wives, servants, herds of llamas, gold, silver, fine clothes, and other sym bols.
Common soldiers who fought in battle could be rewarded with loot and become noble.
The emperor's interests were similar to those of other groups.
In the north and south of the country, the domination of the Incas was extended by warfare, covering 350,000 square miles.
Eighty provinces, scores of ethnic groups, and 16 million people came under the control of the Inka.
The empire was held together by a re markable system of roads.
Quechua replaced local languages by the 17th and 18th century and is still spoken by most of the population today.
The Aztecs and the Incas were very diverse.
The Aztecs used terror to control their subject peoples, whereas the Incas used imperial unification.
Their entire panoply of gods was imposed by them.
These gods were depicted in temples scattered throughout the empire.
Priests sacrificed human beings to the gods when there was a terrible natural disaster or a great military victory.
Imperial unification was achieved through a policy of colonization and forced participation in the central bureaucracy.
The inhabitants of newly conquered territories were replaced with workers who had lived longer in the empire.
Men from conquered territories were drafted by the rulers to fight in distant wars.
The transportation of armies and royal orders was made easier by an excelent system of roads.
Like Persian and Roman roads, the roads followed straight lines but also crossed pontoon bridges.
They were overseers after listening to the past kingdom.
The brave men were selected to work in the mines and for other labor, toil, and obligations.
The soldiers of war were the first path.
The wives of brave men were not free from tribute to fifty.
These men were held to a very high standard.
These women were distinguished in every way possible.
The pressures for growth of the Empire continued.
The Incas attempted to penetrate the tropical Amazon forest east of the Andes because of the scarcity of open lands.
The Incas waged wars with armies drawn up in mass and fought pitched battles on level ground.
A woman is weaving fine cloth on a back-strap loom in a line drawing by Guaman Poma.
The flower pickers were on the Seventh Path.
The girls were from nine to twelve years old.
They don't do anything, but others serve them.
They should be served by their mothers because of the work they do raising their children.
Their mothers have to carry them, and never let them go.
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The first path for both men and women is with the mothers and grandmothers.