UNIT 5: REVOLUTIONS 1750-1900 C.E.
- Enlightenment philosophies applied new ways of understanding and empiricist approaches to both the natural world and human relationships; they also reexamined the role that religion played in public life and emphasized the importance of reason. Philosophers developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract.
- The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment ideas often preceded revolutions and rebellions against governments.
- Nationalism also became a major force shaping the historical development of states and empires.
Enlightenment: An intellectual movement that applied new ways of understanding of the natural way of world by focusing on knowledge gained through observation and experimentation.
- Economic Ideas:
- Adam Smith: Wrote "Wealth of Nations" which argued for a free market without government involvement.
- Enlightenment Ideas and Religious ideals influenced various reforms which contributed to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery, and the end of serfdom.
- Abolition of Slavery: Freed slaves such as Frederick Douglas and Olaudah Equiano were some of the loudest critics. Slave trade outlawed in several states around 1800s. Abolition of slavery itself was difficult because of owner's property rights. Abolition of slavery did not bring immediate social change or political equality.
- Demand for Women Suffrage: Demanded to go to college, own property, run for office, vote, etc. Mary Wollstonecraft and Olympe de Gouge's important women.
- Seneca Falls Conference(1848): organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lacertid Mott and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchies.
THE AMERICAN, FRENCH, HAITIAN, AND LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS
- American Revolution(1775-1783): American colonial opposition to British attempts to control over the colonies and to make them repay the crown for its defense of them during the French and Indian War, which led to rebellion and revolts, leading to independence. The British tightened its control on the colonies and used mercantilism to recover debt. However, colonists got help from the French which led to victory. Creation of new state based on Enlightenment principles and freedoms limited to white men.
- French Revolution(1700s): The debt crisis from the American Revolution worsened by the French participation and an unsustainable taxing system that protected the wealthy and powerful and powerful. The commoners separated the estates general and established the National Assembly, which later led to a series of battles like Paris and Versailles. Assembly also established a constitutional monarchy, limited King Louis. Later, peasants revolted and not long after Jacobians wanted a republic, not monarch, which led to Reign of Terror.; execution of both the King and Queen. A very militaristic democratic republic led by Napoleon Bonaparte was created (1799). He promoted equality, religious toleration, and support for church. However, he was also a dictator, limiting free speech and expanding his empire. Tried to invade Russia, was defeated. The "Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizen" was an important document during this period.
- Haitian Revolution(1790-1800s): Confusion created by the French Revolution, slave revolt joined by escaped slaves, Toussaint L'ouverture rises to lead the rebellion, following examples of the American and French, enslaved people outnumbered Europeans and others 10:1. Spanish and British get involved. Successful slave rebellion, ending slavery and establishing non-white government in the Americas. Created a new constitution.
- Latin American Revolution(19th century): Napoleon's invasion of Spain and Portugal weakened their ability to control the colonies. Exploited native peoples resisted Spanish rule. Tupac's Rebellion: native claiming to be dead Incan Emperor lead to an unsuccessful uprising protesting increase of Spanish taxes. Miguel Hidalgo(creole) inspired peasant uprising. Creoles with native rebels and Mexico won its independence from Spain. Spanish South America: Creole leaders Jose-San Martin and Simon Bolivar lead independence movements. In general this revolution was caused because of the Spanish colonization and conquering of Latin American people. Creoles and Mestizos grew discontented with Spanish rule and Enlightenment ideas spread to the Americas during this period.