The battle of San Jacinto lasted only eighteen minutes and resulted in a decisive victory for the Texians, who retaliated for previous Mexican atrocities by killing fleeing and surrendering Mexican soldiers for hours after the initial assault.
Santa Anna agreed to withdraw his army from Texas and acknowledge the state's independence after signing the Treaty of Velasco on May 14, 1836.
Although a new Mexican government never recognized the Republic of Texas, the United States and several other nations gave the new country diplomatic recognition.
Adding Texas to the Union would cause a war with Mexico and throw off the balance between free and slave states.
Texas statehood was the key to saving John Tyler's political career after he was kicked out of the Whig party.
He began work on opening annexation to a national debate in 1842.
James K. Polk rose from obscurity to win the presidential election.
Polk and his party made promises of westward expansion, with eyes toward Texas, Oregon, and California.
Tyler extended an official offer to Texas in the final days of his presidency.
The republic became the twenty-eighth state on July 4.
The most un just act of aggression can be found in the annals of modern history.
Both nations staked claim to a small strip of land between two rivers.
The southwestern border of Texas was drawn by Mexico at the Nueces River, but Texans claimed that the border was closer to the Rio Grande.
The Nueces strip was controlled by Native Americans and neither claim was realistic.
In 1845, President Polk secretly dispatched John Slidell to Mexico City to purchase the Nueces strip along with large sections of New Mexico and California.
The purpose of the mission was to appease those in Washington who insisted on diplomacy before war.
The officials in Mexico City refused to receive Slidell.
Polk sent a four-thousand-man army to Texas just northeast of the Nueces River to prepare for the failure of the negotiations.
Polk ordered Taylor to cross into the disputed territory after hearing of Slidell's rebuff.
The president wanted the show of force to push the lands of California onto the bargaining table as well.
He messed up the situation.
The Mexican public was against surrendering any more ground to the US after losing Texas.
The government in Mexico City didn't have room to negotiate because of popular opinion.
The Mexican cavalrymen attacked Taylor's troops in the disputed territory just north of the Rio Grande, killing eleven US soldiers.
It took two weeks for the news to get to Washington.
Polk sent a message to Congress on May 11 that summarized the assumptions and intentions of the United States.
We have been trying to propitiate her good will.
She has been affected to believe that we have severed her rightful territory, and in official statements and manifestoes has threatened to make ManIfest DestIny 331 war upon.
We've tried everything at reconciliation.
The recent information from the frontier of the Del Norte had exhausted the cup of forbearance.
Mexico has invaded our territory and taken American blood upon the American soil after repeated menaces.
Polk knew that a vote against war would be a vote against supporting American soldiers.
Congress declared war on May 13.
The measure was opposed by a few members of both parties.
Congress called for fifty thousand volunteer soldiers after declaring war.
Thousands of eager men came to assembly points across the country to get involved in "Mr. Polk's War."
However, opposition to "Mr. Polk's War" grew.
In the fall of 1846, the U.S. Army invaded Mexico and within a year General Winfield Scott's men took control of Mexico City.
The city's fall did not end the war.
Scott's men occupied Mexico's capital for over four months.
The war in the United States was controversial from the beginning.
Embedded journalists sent back detailed reports from the front lines, and a divided press debated the news.
War was not what volunteers expected.
Disease killed seven times as many American soldiers as combat.
On February 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed.
The United States gained lands that would become the future states of California, Utah, and Nevada, as well as parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming.
Mexican officials would have to give up their claims to Texas and recognize the Rio Grande as its southern boundary.
The US offered fifteen million dollars for it.
The Mexican leaders had no choice but to sign.
New Mexico, the fertile lands of eastern Texas, and the famed gold deposits of California were some of the places that attracted a diverse group of settlers to the new American Southwest.
The U.S.-Mexican War had a huge impact on both countries.
Mexico lost half of its territory.
The United States' victory was not without danger.
There is a conflict over whether to extend slavery into the Commons.
The Gold rush California, belonging to Mexico prior to the war, took at least three months to travel from the nearest American settlements.
Some missionaries made the trip to the valley occasionally.
Many people left their families and headed west along the Oregon Trail because of the great environmental and economic potential of the Oregon Territory.
The trail was a representation of the hopes of many for a better life and was reinforced by images like the Oregon Trail.
Migrants were filled with a sense of dread, even though most settlers encountered no violence or Indians at all.
The slow progress, disease, human and oxen starvation, poor trails, terrible geographic preparations, lack of guidebooks, threatening wildlife, and general confusion were all more formidable and frequent than Indian attacks.
By the year 1849, twenty thousand Americans were living west of the Rockies, with most of them in Oregon.
More Americans sought more than agricultural life and family responsibilities when they moved because they nurtured a romantic vision of life.
The individualism and military prowess of the West, encapsulated for some by service in the Mexican war, drew a growing new breed west of the Sierra Nevada to meet with the Californians already there: a breed of migrants different from the modest agricultural communities of the near West.
If the great draw of the West served as manifest destiny's kindling, the discovery of gold in California was the spark that set the fire chapter 12 ablaze.
Younger single men were drawn to gold towns throughout the West because of the lure of getting rich quickly.
The arrival of fortune-seekers and other people associated with the gold rush made them magnets.
San Francisco's population grew from five hundred in 1848 to almost fifty thousand by 1854. manifest destiny's promises were threatened by lawlessness, predictable failure of fortune seekers, racial conflicts, and the slavery question.