A teacher wants to know if teaching style affects quiz scores.
She divides the class into two groups and uses different styles to teach them.
She compares the results of the same set of quizzes.
A researcher wants to study how students respond to their teacher's feedback by using a one-way mirror.
A researcher might find a correlation between two variables.
A researcher draws names from a hat to assign subjects to the experimental and control groups.
There are major ideas and people for the AP Psychology topic of Scientific Foundations of Psychology.
Many of these will be on the AP Psychology exam.
If you can answer "yes" to at least three of the questions, you should check off the key terms.
Take your correct answers from Part A and review the quiz explanations at the end of the chapter.
Take the number of key terms you checked off.
The Rapid Review Key Takeaways are in this chapter.
Follow the instructions based on your performance if you consult the table below.
The first psychology lab was founded in 1879, but the science of psychology has a long history.
A wide variety of theoretical orientations have emerged throughout psychology's history, each of which represents a distinctive approach to investigating behavior and mental processes.
Today, there are many different types of psychologists.
Without the contributions of many talented men and women, psychology wouldn't be the science that it is today.
A variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in the study of psychology.
Researchers can be confident about using the results of psychological research to make conclusions about real-life phenomena.
This is done by controlling variables, creating representative samples, controlling for internal and external validity, and operationalizing definitions and measurements.
Statistics are used to make sense of the data gathered in a research study.
This involves the use of descriptive statistics like measures of central tendency and dispersion, as well as inferential statistics for making generalizations based on the data.
Because psychological study often involves the participation of human subjects, researchers must abide by established ethical principles and practices as well as by legal guidelines while conducting research.
Rene Descartes is a French philosopher and mathematician.
The mind and the body are separate substances that operate according to their own set of principles.
John Locke believed that every human mind begins as a blank slate, which is shaped by individual experiences to become a unique person.
The idea that all knowledge comes from experience is still influential in contemporary psychology and other experimental sciences.
A member of the Associationist School, David Hume proposed several principles of association.
Rules that govern the way in which the mind connects one idea to another and constructs complex ideas out of simpler ones are the principles of association.
The idea of evolution is that species change over time in order to maximize survival and reproductive success by means of natural selection.
The idea of measuring the size and location of bumps on a person's skull was discredited by subsequent research.
Psychophysics was created by the German scientists Weber and Fechner, who were interested in the relationship between physical stimuli and sensations.
A technique used by early scientific psychologists consists of precise examination and description of an individual's conscious experience, typically in response to stimuli presented by the researcher.
Structuralism is a theoretical approach developed in the late 19th century that seeks to uncover the structures of consciousness through detailed descriptions of experience in laboratory settings.
Functionalism was developed by William James in response to structuralism and focused on how aspects of consciousness allowed human beings to adapt to their environments.
The biological approach emphasizes neuroscience, genetics, and evolution in its explanations.
Eugenics is the idea that the human species can be improved through breeding.
Behaviorists emphasize the impact of learning and other environmental forces on human and animal behavior, while theorists believe that psychology should only study observable and measurable behavior.
A response to structuralism developed by Max Wertheimer and others in the early twentieth century sought to discover principles that organized the whole of perceptual experience.
Freud's therapeutic approach was based on the idea that some symptoms are the result of conflicts and other problems in the unconscious mind.
Psychodynamic psychology is the collective term used to describe the approaches of Freud, Jung, Adler, and similar thinkers, which tend to rely on ideas about the unconscious.
Humanistic psychology was developed in the mid-twentieth century and emphasizes human freedom and self- development.
The rise of the cognitive approach in psychology sought to investigate a wide variety of cognitive processes.
Sociocultural approach emphasizes how social and cultural contexts influence the development of human behavior.
Neuroscience and biological psychology investigate how the brain and nervous system cause behavior.
Clinical psychologists help people who suffer from psychological disorders.
Cognitive psychologists are interested in thinking and other cognitive processes.
Community psychologists help solve social problems by building relationships among community members.
They study how individuals relate to their communities.
Counseling psychology is similar to clinical psychologists in that it helps people with less severe problems.
They help people navigate through ordinary difficulties.
Human development is the focus of developmental psychologists.
Educational psychologists investigate how a variety of factors affect students.
Environmental psychologists study the interactions between people and the natural environment and explore issues such as the impact of environmental stress on psychological health and productivity.
Experimental psychologists design and oversee empirical research projects to gain insights into psychological processes.
Evolutionary psychologists understand behavior through fitness, adaptation, and other evolutionary concepts.
In forensic psychology, trained in both psychology and the law, they can provide valuable expertise within the judicial system, assessing defendants and inmates, advising judges, and conducting research on issues relevant to the justice system.
Gerontology is the study of aging and the elderly; gerontological psychologists assess cognitive functioning in older people and assist in determining how much assistance an older person needs on a daily basis, as well as conduct research and teaching.
Health psychologists look at health and illness in the context of biological, psychological, and social factors.
Engineering psychologists investigate how human beings can work safely and effectively with machines.
Industrial and organizational psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace to improve productivity, health, and the quality of work life.
Personality psychologists investigate how our personality develops and how it affects how we think, feel, and act.
Psycholinguistics studies language acquisition and other psychological processes that involve language.
Psychometrics studies the theories and techniques of psychological measurement.
Rehabilitation psychology helps clients adapt to their new situations, including adjusting to work and pain management, when they are affected by injuries, disabilities, and other medical conditions.
Most school psychologists work for school systems and provide a wide range of services, such as diagnosis, assessment, intervention, prevention, health promotion, and program development.
Social psychologists study group behavior, as well as the impact of other people on the behavior of individuals.
Sport psychologists are knowledgeable in many areas of psychology.
The specialists focus on athletes.
One of the first practitioners of family counseling and an advocate of the psychodynamic approach was Alfred Adler.
American cognitive psychologist who developed a theory of cognitive growth was influential in educational psychology.
William James is best known for self-psychology, an introspective psychology that understands the self as a conscious organisms that functions and has experiences and drives.
Linguist and cognitive psychologist Noam Chomsky believes that language acquisition is an innate human characteristic and argues for a universal grammar underlying all language.
The foundation of modern evolutionary studies was created by Charles Darwin's scientific theory of evolution by natural selection.
He influenced both functionalists and evolutionary psychologists.
Dorothea Dix is best known for exposing the atrocious conditions suffered by the mentally ill in state institutions and for leading a reform movement for the humane treatment of mental patients.
One of the founding fathers of psychophysics, Gustav Fechner looked at quantitative relations between sensations and stimuli.
Leon Festinger is an American social psychologist best known for his work in social psychology.
A form of therapy that focuses on the unconscious was founded by Sigmund Freud.
He developed a stage theory of psychosexual development and a structural model of personality.
The founder of phrenology believed that different functions were located in different parts of the brain.
G. Stanley Hall was the first president of the American Psychological Association and a student of William James.
Conducted research on the nervous system, eye, and ear, advanced the trichromatic theory of color vision, and was the first to measure the speed of a nerve impulse.
The James-Lange theory of emotion was founded by William James.
One of the first psychological laboratories in the United States was established by him.
Carl Jung is best known for developing the theory of Archetypes and the collective unconscious.
The humanistic psychologist is best known for his hierarchy of needs.
Ivan Pavlov is a Russian physiologist who influenced the behaviorists.
Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget is best known for his stage theory of cognitive development.
Carl Rogers is a humanistic psychologist.
The "Skinner box," an apparatus used in learning experiments, is named after B.F. Skinner.
Edward Titchener is credited with bringing structuralism to the United States.
Lev S. Vygotsky is a Russian psychologist who is known for his ideas about cognitive development.
Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman to receive a PhD in psychology and the author of The Animal Mind, which advocated for the scientific study of mental phenomena.
He is known for his contributions to classical conditioning theory and his Little Albert experiment.
The concept of the just-noticeable difference is one of the founding principles of psychophysics.
The founder of Gestalt psychology emphasized the study of perception as a whole.
Quantitative research is research that uses operational measurement and statistical techniques to reach conclusions on the basis of numerical data.
Research that does not rely on numerical representations of data is called qualitative research.
The correlation coefficients represent the strength and direction of the correlation between two variables.
The stronger the correlation between the variables, the closer the coefficients are.
Positive correlation is an indicator of a direct relationship between two variables.
When one variable increases, the other decreases, there is a negative correlation.
naturalistic observation is a research method that attempts to document behavior as it spontaneously occurs in a realworld setting.
Structured observation is a type of observational research where the researcher can control some aspects of the environment.
A level of consistency in recording and describing observations is achieved by the classification of behaviors into categories.
A mostly qualitative research method in which the researcher becomes a member of a studied group.
The Hawthorne effect is a phenomenon in which research subjects change their behavior in response to being observed.
Longitudinal study is a research design that examines how individuals develop by studying the same sample over a long period of time.
A cross-sectional study compares groups of different ages to arrive at conclusions about development.
A case study is a research design that involves an in-depth and detailed examination of a single subject.
A survey is a research method in which a group of people fill out a list of questions.
A low response rate can cause a distortion of data in surveys.
When a survey question is written in a way that makes respondents answer in a certain way, a distortion of data can occur.
Experiments are designed to test hypotheses.
A hypothesis is a proposed, testable explanation for a phenomenon, often constructed in the form of a statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
A controlled experiment is a research design in which all aspects of the study are deliberately controlled and only independent variables are manipulated to isolate their effects on dependent variables.
Experiments conducted in the real world have fewer controls than would be found in a lab.
Natural experiment/quasi-experiment is an experiment that does not involve direct manipulation of variables, in which researchers rely on natural variations and advanced statistics to draw conclusions.
Independent variables are variables that are not dependent on one another.
The factors are measured as outcomes or results in an experiment.
Control variables are things that are kept constant in an experiment.
The effects of independent variables on dependent variables can be changed by factors other than the independent variable.
A control group is an experiment that represents a standard to which experimental groups are compared.
A group of people in an experiment are exposed to some variation of the independent variable.
The placebo effect is a psychological phenomenon in which a person's belief that he or she is receiving a treatment causes the treatment to work.
A single-blind experiment is an experiment in which the researchers don't know if the participants are in a control group or an experimental group.
In a double-blind experiment, neither the researchers nor the participants know who belongs to the control and experimental groups.
All individuals are participating in a research study.
The larger set of individuals from which the sample is selected is the population.
Random sampling is the process of selecting people from a population.
A set of individuals with a range of characteristics that match the larger population.
Random assignment gives everyone an equal chance of being assigned to a group.
A measure of the extent to which an experiment investigates what it is supposed to be is called internal validity.
The extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized to real people, situations, and life outside the lab is called external validity.
Factors that influence a study's participants to change their behavior to fit what they believe to be the experiment's purpose are demand characteristics.
Observer-expectancy effect is a phenomenon in which experimenters communicate their expectations of what the results of a study will be.
An operational definition is a specification of how a variable will be quantified.
Descriptive statistics include measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion.
Inferential statistics are used to make larger generalizations about a population.
The measurable characteristics of samples are compared with parameters.
A confidence interval is a range of likely values.
There is no relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
There is a relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
The lower the p- value, the more likely the alternative hypothesis is to be true.
The significance level is the percentage that must be below in order to conclude that the alternative hypothesis is supported.
The null hypothesis's p - value falls below the significance level.
The incorrect assumption that a relationship exists between variables is a type I error.
The incorrect assumption that no relationship exists between variables is a type II error.
A line graph is a representation of the relationship between two variables, typically with the independent variable plotted on the x- axis and the dependent variable plotted on the y- axis.
A bar graph is a representation of numerical data.
A bar graph is a representation of the data points.
A scatterplot is a graph that represents all the data points collected in a study.
A line of best fit is a straight line drawn in a scatterplot to approximate the relationship between two variables.
Measures of central tendency are statistics that describe the middle of a distribution of data.
The mean is the sum of the data points divided by the total number of points.
When the data is arranged in increasing or decreasing order, the median is the value in the middle of the data set.
The most frequently occurring value is Mode.
Extreme values are relative to the rest of the data in a set.
Statistics that describe the distribution of data in a set are called measures of dispersion.
A numerical value is used to show how widely individual data points differ from the mean.
The standard deviation is a measure of the average difference between two data points.
informed consent is the practice of obtaining consent when revealing to subjects specific details about the research prior to participation, including its purpose, the procedures involved, the expected benefits and risks, and the participants' rights.
Explaining important information to participants after a study concludes includes why information was concealed or distorted, the actual purpose and procedures of the study, and the results of the study.
Keeping confidentiality is a commitment to controlling access to personal information.
IRBs are committees that review and approve or reject proposals for human subjects research projects based on ethical principles.
A psychologist wants to study the effects of coffee on happiness.
A scientist wants to study the effects of exercise on rats.
A researcher pays a student to sort subjects into two groups and store the information in a secure document.
One of the subjects makes the researcher read the document after the experiment is over.
Even though he knows it is against hospital policy, a new doctor gives his boss his password for the hospital's online database.
The doctor said that he had a hard time disobeying an order from an authority figure at the hospital, even though he knew it was wrong.
The list in the Test What You Already Know section is the same as this key terms list.
If you can answer "yes" to at least three of the questions, you should check off the key terms.
Take your correct answers from Part A and review the quiz explanations at the end of the chapter.
Take the number of key terms you checked off.
To see how exam- ready you are for this topic, you need to compare your Test What You Already Know results to these Test What You Learned results.
You can complete the online quiz questions for Scientific Foundations of Psychology.
In an experiment, the dependent variable is controlled and altered to see if it affects the independent variable.
In this case, the teacher changes her teaching style to see the effect on quiz scores, so teaching style is the independent variable; (C) is correct.
Although the groups are controlled, they are not measured as a variable.
The teacher is conducting the study.
The first lab in psychology was started in 1879 by Wundt at the University of Leipzig, when he began training his first graduate student.
James only worked in the United States and found an early psychology lab there.
The behaviorist who worked in the U.S. after Wundt's time was known asWatson.
Freud was an Austrian who focused on therapy and the development of the Freudian school.
naturalistic observation is an example of this method.
naturalistic observation is when researchers observe participants in a natural environment.
A case study is an in-depth, detailed examination of an individual or small group.
The term remote viewing is associated with psychic abilities, not scientific research.
Rene Descartes believes that the mind and the body are separate substances, known as mind-body dualism.
None of the other choices supported this position.
The standard deviation is the distance from the average to the data.
The closer the data is to the mean, the smaller the standard deviation is.
The scores in the second class have a larger standard deviation, so they deviate more from the mean.
Without additional information, it's not possible to know whether the classes share the same mean score or if the mean is larger in one class.
Unless given explicit permission from an IRB, an experiment should not be performed without informed consent.
(A) and (B) are incorrect if there is informed consent and a full debriefing afterwards.
Participants don't need to know the variables being tested and researchers don't need to tell participants exactly what they should expect.
Social psychologists are concerned with how groups influence individuals.
A study on how group size influences individual decisions is likely to be conducted by a social psychologist.
A correlation is a way to show the strength of the relationship between two variables.
The stronger the relationship is, the closer the coefficients are.
The correlation of -0.98 is very strong, so (B) is correct and (A) is incorrect.
A negative number shows an inverse correlation between variables, not strength or weakness.
Don't assume that because two variables have a strong relationship, one causes the other; correlation does not equal causation.
D and E are incorrect.
Inferential statistics techniques are used to make generalizations.
Inferential statistics are not used to determine the strength of a relationship or establish cause and effect between variables.
Inferential statistics can be used to test hypotheses, but not when they are formulated.
Random assignment is the process of assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, as with drawing names out of a hat.
Random sampling allows each member of the population to have an equal chance of being chosen.
Representative sampling involves choosing a sample from a larger population that accurately represents the different aspects of that population.
Sampling is done by dividing the population into subpopulations and then pulling samples from each subgroup.
To ensure that both groups have the same compositions, researchers divide subjects into control and experimental groups based on demographic characteristics.
An abstract concept like happiness needs an operational definition in order to be used as a variable in an experiment.
A smile is a good indicator of happiness and the operational definition of (A) is the best.
Whether a subject seems happy could be difficult to measure and highly subjective, depending on the observer's interpretation of happiness.
While the APA sets the ethical guidelines that researchers must follow when using humans as participants, it is the job of local institutional review boards to determine whether research proposals can be approved.
Former participants are not involved in the ethical review process, and a peer review board decides whether an academic paper is suitable for publishing.
Humanistic psychologists are interested in personal growth and freedom.
The approaches in choices offer a variety of explanations for human behavior.
Standard deviation is a commonly used measure of dispersion and is correct.
Correlation, a measure of the relationship between variables, is not a measure of dispersion.
In hypothesis testing, the p - value is a statistical measure.
The variables move in opposite directions when there is a negative correlation.
As one variable increases in value, the other decreases, creating an inverse relationship; (A) is correct, and (B) and (C) are incorrect.
The strength of a correlation is indicated by the absolute value of the correlation coefficients, not whether it is positive or negative.
Researchers are able to control variables and groups of participants in an experiment.
Correlational studies have very little control and no manipulation of variables.
Strict observational studies exercise little control and are incorrect.
It is incorrect to say that operationalization is not a research design.
The variable that is measured in the experiment is the dependent variable.
The dependent variable is dopamine levels.
The amount of exercise is the independent variable since it is manipulated in the experiment to determine its effects on dopamine levels.
William James was the first functionalist in psychology and he emphasized the investigation of the functions of consciousness over its structure.
A single-blind experiment is one in which the subjects don't know which group they are in.
The experiment became single-blind after the researcher looked at the document and saw where each subject was assigned.
A placebo is a substance or treatment with no therapeutic effect that is used to make people think they are in an experimental group.
The study described in the question stem is an experiment consisting of multiple subjects.
The level of association between two or more characteristics of interest is determined by a correlational study.
The experiment showed that people obey authority figures even if they are not what they would normally do.
The new doctor gave his supervisor his information even though he knew he shouldn't.
Philip Zimbardo studied how social roles influence people's behavior in a prison experiment.
The trichromatic theory of color vision was contributed to by Thomas Young.
The cognitive development of children is studied by Jean Piaget.
Robert Rosenthal studies the effects of self-fulfilling prophecies.