ChAPTER 27 -- Part 7: Asian Transitions in an Age of Global
In the case of the Iberian kingdoms, the Chinese empire was larger and more populous than the tiny Muslim adversaries.
Merchants and rulers wanted limited resources.
Rivalries between the states of a fragmented ers would find new lands that were suitable for growing crops such as sugar that were in high demand and competition on the part of the Europeans.
The leaders of rival branches of the ers could imagine.
China's armies were much larger than those of the Christian faith because they believed that overseas expansion would give them control of any of the European kingdoms.
The Chinese rulers had a far larger population than the Europeans to cultivate their infidel Muslims, and Prester John would ally with them in their struggle with the Chinese rulers.
The technological project of a single emperor and a favored eunuch, innovations of the medieval period gave the Europeans an advantage over the Chinese in animal and machine power.
Yongle appears to have been able to make up for their lack of human power with a capacity that was driven by little more than curiosity.
He considered both civilizations inferior despite their differences.
Although some Chinese merchants went along for the ride, most didn't need the voyages.
They already traded on favorable terms for all the products when they were in China.
The voyages of Da Gama, Asia, and in some cases Europe and Africa could be offered.
The scholar-gentry were hostile to the expeditions.
The voyages were seen as a waste of money by the scholar-gentry before Da Gama rounded the Cape of resources that the empire could not afford.
The memory of foreign rule was that other civilizations had the capacity for global expansion.
The Europeans surged outward as the Chinese retreated.
The internal disorder was caused by foreign threats and renewed assaults by nomadic peoples from beyond the Great Wal.
The epidemic of Japanese and ethnic Chinese pirate attacks that ravaged the southern coast in the 16th century was one of the early signs of the seriousness of imperial deterioration.
The dynasty was overthrown in 1644 by rebels from within, not by nomads, despite an official preoccupation with the Mongols and the Manchus.
After committing suicide in the face of watching his wife kill herself, the ill-fated emperor retreated to the imperial gardens and hanged City at Beijing.
A succession of three remarkable military leaders was needed to restore unity in the Tokugawa shogunate after the stalemate between the warring houses of the samurai elite was so entrenched in the 16th century.
His skills as a military leader soon vaulted him into prominence in the ongoing struggles for threat from the europeans power among the daimyo or regional lords.
The Tokugawa shoguns succeeded in innovation and ruthless determination because of their leader, Nobunaga.
He was not afraid to launch a state surprise attack against an enemy that outnumbered him ten to one, and he was one of the first samurai leaders to make extensive use of the firearms that the Japanese had begun to acquire from.
The Ashikaga shoguns had ruled in name only until Nobunaga deposed them.
He unified much of central Honshu under his command by 1580.
Nobunaga was killed when the Kyoto temple where he had taken refuge was burned to the ground as his armies drove against the western daimyo.
The main centers of population and political power in early Modern Japan were readily accessible to the sea, which was the arena in which the europeans could best project their military prowess and exercise their commercial prerogatives.
Hideyoshi was a better diplomat than his master, who deposed the last Ashikaga shoguns.
Hideyoshi the military hegemon of Japan was made after a system of alliances and victories over the last of central Honshu.
The ambitious overlord had grandiose plans for conquest.
Hideyoshi threatened the General under Nobunaga, as well as the Spanish in the Philippines.
As the first step toward fulfilling this vision, Hideyoshi launched two attacks on Korea in 1592 and 1597, each in central Japan, and continued efforts that involved nearly 150,000 soldiers.
Both campaigns stopped after initial successes.
The first break power of daimyos ended in defeat and the second was still in progress when Hideyoshi died.
Ieyasu soon wah ee-Yah-soo] Vassal emerged triumphant from the renewed warfare that resulted from Hideyoshi's death.
Ieyasu succeeded Hideyoshi as most continue Hideyoshi's campaigns of overseas expansion.
In 1603 he was given the title of shogun by the emperor, an act that formally inaugurated the title of shogun in 1603 and centuries of rule by the Tokugawa shogunate.
In Japan, most of the lands are political unity.
Many of the outlying or vassal daimyo retained their domain, they were carefully controlled and modern-day Tokyo; center of the were required to pledge their personal allegiance to the shogun.
Tokugawa shogunate wanted to ensure their continued loyalty.
The Tokugawas' victory ended the civil wars and brought a semblance of political unity to the islands.
When the three unifiers were struggling to bring the feisty daimyo under control, they also had to contend with a new force in Japanese history: the Europeans.
European traders and missionaries were visiting Japan in increasing numbers when Portuguese sailors were washed up on the shore of Kyushu.
The traders brought the Japanese goods that were produced in India, China, and Southeast Asia and exchanged them for other items.
European traders and missionaries who owed them to the islands brought firearms, printing presses, and other Western devices.
The firearms, which the Japanese could themselves manufacture within years and were improving in design within a generation, revolutionized Japanese warfare and contributed much to the victories of the unifiers.
The Japanese were encouraged to trade in places like Formosa and Korea, as well as distant places like the Philippines and Siam, because of commercial contacts with the Europeans.