Edited Invalid date
ChAPTER 23 -- Part 2: Early Latin America
Between the first voyage of Columbus and the conquest of Mexico, the Caribbean was a testing ground.
It was here that the exchange of peoples, crops, domesticated animals, diseases, and cultures began.
Iberian-style cities were established by the Spaniards but had to be adapted to American realities.
Hurricanes and the native peoples' resistance caused many towns to be moved or abandoned, but the New World also provided opportunities to implant new ideas and forms.
Spanish American cities were usually laid out according to a grid plan with the town hall, major church, and governor's palace in the central plaza.
Rational town planning ideas were applied to the new situation by Spaniards.
Settlement came to mean Conquest.
Spain created administrative institutions to rule, including the governorship, treasury office, and royal court of appeals.
The institutional transfer included Spanish legalism.
When gold was discovered in the interior of the colony in the 18th century, settlers and prospectors moved to the coast.
Most of the Amazon region was along the major rivers.
It was augmented by American experience.
The church was represented first by individual priests and then by missionaries such as the Dominicans.
A university and a cathedral were built by 1530 on Hispaniola.
By the 1510s, the immigrants included larger numbers of Spanish women, as a result of rumors and hopes, which claimed control of the new lands, but also from the other Iberian kingdoms.
Spanish and Italian merchants imported African slaves to work on sugar plantations on the islands.
There was a shift from an area of conquest to one of settlement after the arrival of Spanish women and slaves.
The gold-hunting phase in the islands ended in the 1520s and was replaced by sugar plantations.
As expeditions spun off in new directions, the adventurous, the disappointed, and the greedy repeated the pattern.
In 30 years or so, most of the indigenous population of the Tainos died or were KILLED, as a result of the depopulation of the Tainos.
The people of the Lesser Antil es, or "Caribs," who were accused of cannibalism by the Spaniards, were held out longer because their islands were less attractive to European settlement.
African slaves were imported to meet the labor needs of the islands.
The abuse of the American Indians led to attempts by clerics and administrators to end the worst abuses.
The impact of the native peoples and cultures on the societies that emerged was greater than in the Caribbean, but the process of the Native American population of contact was the same.
By the time of the conquest of Mexico in the 1520s and Peru in the 1530s, the Spanish colonies had forced all the elements of the colonial system of Latin America into place.
The labor advocated Indian rights in Brazil.
After 1500, a period of bartering with the Native Americans was replaced by increasing royal control and development of a sugar plantation economy.
In the Caribbean, resistance and depopulation led to the importation of African laborers.
There is no other race that can penetrate through such rugged lands, dense forests, great mountains and deserts as the Spaniards have done.
The Spaniards' pride in their accomplishments was underscored by the words of Pedro Cieza de Leon.
In less than a century, a large portion of two continents and islands in an inland sea was brought under Spanish control.
In their wake followed the women, missionaries, administrators, and artisans who began to form civil society.
The expedition was operated with government approval.
The first part of the conquest was to the coast of Mexico in 1519 and the second part was to South America.
The campaign in Mexico is an example of a conquest.
He heard rumors of a great kingdom in the interior.
The great Casas, "Of the Island of Hispaniola", was reached with the help of the Indian allies.
The Aztecs' traditional enemies helped cut off Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztecs.
The Aztec confederacy put up a fight, but it wasn't enough to save the city in 1521.
We are lying in ruins after being crushed to the ground.
In Mexico and Tlatelolco there is a lot of grief and suffering.
By 1535, most of central Mexico had been taken over by the Spanish.
From the Caribbean outposts to the coast of northern South America and Panama was the second trajectory of conquest.
Rumors of a rich kingdom to the south came from Panama.
After a false start, Francisco Pizarro led his men to the conquest of the Inca empire, which was already weakened by a long civil war.
Less than 200 Spaniards and their Indian allies brought down a great empire.
The Spanish decided to build a major city closer to the coast after the fall of the Cuzco capital.
The majority of the country was under Spanish rule by 1540, but the resistance continued for another 30 years.
They penetrated the zones of semi-sedentary and nomadic peoples.
View flashcards and assignments made for the note
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms