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28 -- Part 1: World War and Revolution
Europe went to war in the summer of 1914.
People and governments expected a short war to lead to a victory.
The First World War was very destructive.
The Great War was simply the shell-shocked generation of survivors.
The Russian people revolted against their tsar, Nicholas II, in March 1917, forcing him to abdicate.
Moderate reformers decided to continue the war against Germany despite establishing a government.
A second revolution was staged by the Communist party in November, promising an end to the war.
The phrase "Glory to the Greater France" was used by the communist state in history.
When the victorious Allies, led by Great Britain, France, and the (spike helmets) he wears on United States, gathered in Paris in 1919 to write the peace, they were his head.
Some came to Paris for revenge, others for the spoils of war, and others for nationalist causes.
Few left Paris satisfied with the results.
The delegates wanted peace and prosperity for a long time.
The First World War clearly marked a break in the course of world history.
The war consolidated America's position as a global power and accelerated the growth of nationalism in Asia.
Europe's greatest impact was the war.
The Europeans were drawn into war by a system of al iances.
Imperialism would make this a global war of unprecedented scope.
The unification of Germany and the Franco-Prussian War opened a new era in international relations.
Prussia-Germany was the most powerful nation in Europe by 1871.
Germany was declared a "satisfied" power by Bismarck.
The first concern was to keep France isolated.
By the time war broke out, Europe was divided into two opposing alliances; the Triple Alliance of Britain, France, and Russia, and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Italy joined the Entente in 1915.
To prevent conflict between Russia Ferdinand and Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire joined Central Powers and was isolated from a hostile France.
Germany, Austria, and Russia formed an alliance against Russia in 1879.
The Battles of Verdun and the Somme, Irish ter Germany's new Wil iam II, and the German auxiliary service resigned in 1890.
William refused to renew the law that requires 17- to 60-year-old males to sign a non-aggression pact with Russia if they are attacked.
Europe was divided into two groups.
The United States declared war on Germany.
Russia's civil war was a natural ally.
The Treaty of Versailles gave way after 1890 to a bitter gain in popularity.
There were many reasons for this development.
The British are occupied by the French and Belgian armies.
The League of Nations has naval supremacy.
The anti-British feeling around the world was revealed in the African War.
In order to strengthen its global position, Britain improved its relations with the United States, and in 1904 settled outstanding colonial disputes with France.
Germany's leaders were frustrated by Britain's close relationship with France.
In 1905, the Germans insisted on an international conference on the whole of Morocco, rather than accepting a territorial payoff of a slice of French jungle somewhere in Africa or a port there.
Germany left the conference empty-handed because it forced France and Britain closer together.
The crisis in Morocco was a diplomatic revolution.
Germany was viewed as a potential threat by Britain, France, Russia, and the United States.
German leaders began to fear encirclement.
The Anglo-Russian Agreement was signed in 1907 after Russia was battered by its war with Japan and the 1905 revolution.
Tensions were raised by Germany's decision to dramatically expand its naval forces.
A large navy was seen as the mark of a great world power by German nationalists.
British leaders considered it a military challenge that forced them to spend the "People's Budget" on battleships.
Europe's leading nations were divided into two hostile blocs, both ill-prepared to deal with upheaval in the Balkans.
The Balkans war seemed inevitable in the early twentieth century.
The reason was simple: nationalism was threatening to destroy the Ottoman Empire and break up the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Ottoman Empire was forced to cede most of its territory in Europe, but it retained important Balkan holdings.
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