The freeing of the serfs was the greatest of the reforms.
Roughly half of the land was given to the emancipated peasants.
They had to pay high prices for their land because it was owned by peasant villages.
The re form had limited effects.
Independent courts and equality before the law were established as a result of the reform of the legal system.
A class of modern factory workers began to take shape in the industrial suburbs around Mos cow.
The reform era came to an end after Alexander II was assassinated.
Economic modernization continued in the 1890s despite the frozen litical modernization.
The minister of finance doubled Russia's railroad network by the end of the century and promoted Russian industry with high protective tariffs.
Russia was expanding its empire in Asia by 1900.
Russia had established a sphere of influence in Chinese Manchuria by 1903.
In February 1904, the Japanese launched an attack on the Russian forces in Manchuria.
Russia was defeated by Japan in September 1905.
The military disaster in East Asia brought politics to the forefront.
Workers protested for better working conditions and higher wages on January 22, 1905, and the tsar's troops attacked them.
The event known as "Bloody Sunday" set off a wave of strikes and peasant uprisings across Russia.
The general strike in October 1905 forced the government to capitulate.
The result promised a popularly elected Duma with real legislative power.
After 1850, as identification with the nation-state was becoming a basic organizing principle in Europe, urban growth continued unfettered.
Long standing overcrowding and poor living conditions were worsened by rapid urban growth.
Officials, reformers, and scientists worked hard to address these challenges, and eventually success with urban problems encouraged people to put their faith in a responsive national state.
The steam engine freed industrialists from dependence on the energy of fast-flowing streams and rivers so that by 1800 there was every incentive to build new factories, which had better shipping facilities as well as a large and ready workforce.
As industry grew, there was also a rapid expansion of already overcrowded cities.
In the 18th century people in Britain and France began to worry about the state of their cities.
Parks and open areas were almost absent, and highly concentrated urban populations lived in extremely unsanitary and unsafe conditions, with open drain and sewer lines running alongside or down the middle of the streets.
The response from a generation of re formers was energetic.
The most famous reformer was a British official.
He believed that disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment.
The children are playing with a dead rat and the woman is looking for dung.
Shelter for the frightfully overcrowded population is provided by cheap rooming houses.
In the 1800s, India was the site of deadly epidemics of cholera.
The basis of Great Britain's first public health law was created in 1848 by the report of Chadwick.
Dedicated supporters in the United States, France, and Germany supported sanitary movements.
Pasteur's work caused the spread of living work, which showed the connection between germs and organisms that can be controlled.
The organisms responsible for disease were identified over the next twenty years.
The discoveries led to the development of vac cines.
The germ theory was applied to hospitals by surgeons, who sterilized everything that entered the operating room.
Millions of lives were saved after about 1890 because of the public health movement.
Death rates in England, France, and Germany declined dramatically, and many diseases became extinct in the industrialized nations.
The quality of urban life was improved by more effective urban planning after 1850.
During the rule of Napoleon III, France took the lead.
Napoleon III found an authoritarianplanner capable of bulldozing both buildings and opposition in the baron Georges Haussmann.
Slum clearance, new streets and housing, parks and open spaces, and good fresh water transformed Paris in twenty years.
Modern urbanism was stimulated after 1870 by the re building of Paris.
Mass public transportation was important in the development of urban living conditions.
The electric streetcar was adopted in Europe and North America in the 1890s.
Electric streetcars were cheaper, faster, and more reliable than their horse-drawn counterparts.
Electric streetcars gave people of modest means access to improved housing, as the crowded city was able to expand and become less congested.