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14.4 Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions
When an acid and base are mixed, they undergo a neutralization reaction.
A neutral solution of an acid and a base seems to be implied by the word neutralization.
This is sometimes true, but the salts that are formed in these reactions may have acidic or basic properties of their own.
When there are equal concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ion, the solution is neutral.
An acid-base neutralization reaction occurs when we mix solutions of acid and base.
We may find that the solution is not neutral even if we mix equivalent quantities.
The nature of the salt formed determines whether the solution is acidic, neutral, or basic.
A weakly acidic solution can be produced by a strong acid and a weak base, but only if the conjugate acid of the weak base is strong.
A solution of a weak acid reacts with a solution of a strong base to form a conjugate base of the weak acid and the strong base.
The strong base's conjugate acid is a weaker acid than water and has no effect on the solution's acidity.
The weak acid's conjugate base is weak and ionizes in water.
This makes the solution slightly basic and increases the amount of hydroxide ion in it.
An acidic, basic, or neutral solution can be achieved with a weak acid and a weak base.
This is the most complex of the reactions.
The solution can be acidic or basic if the conjugate acid and the conjugate base are not equal.
It helps us digest food.
The acid of the stomach leaking through the muscular valve at the top of the stomach into the lower reaches of the esophagus causes the burning sensation associated with heartburn.
The OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9 from the corrosive effects of stomach acid the way the lining of the stomach is, and the results can be very painful.
If we take an antacid, we can reduce the excess acid in the esophagus.
Antacids are bases.
CaCO3 is one of the most common antacids.
Milk of Magnesia is a suspension of magnesium.
This reaction doesn't produce carbon dioxide, but magnesium-based antacids can have a laxative effect.
The active ingredient in several antacids is aluminum hydroxide.
Some antacids use aluminum hydroxide in conjunction with magnesium hydroxide to balance the effects of the two substances.
Synthetic chemistry in cooking is safe to eat.
There are many examples of acid-base chemistry in the kitchen.
Baking soda can be used in baking.
The base is NaHCO3.
Baking powder is a mixture of two chemicals that come in contact with water in the batter.
Many people like to cook fish with acids such as lemon juice and vinegar.
Fish have volatile amine in their systems, which are neutralized by acids to yield involatile ammonium salts.
The smell of the fish is reduced and the taste is better.
A neutralization reaction takes place between the bases in the flesh of fish and the bases in lemons or acetic acid.
Pickling is a method used to preserve vegetables.
A cucumber is submerged in a brine solution in a sealed jar.
The brine solution suppresses the growth of harmfulbacteria and favors the growth of beneficialbacteria.
The beneficialbacteria feed on the starches in the cucumber and produce lactic acid as a waste product.
The acidity of the brine is increased by the lactic acid, which kills harmfulbacteria.
Cucumbers are able to last longer if they are not eaten by harmfulbacteria.
The acid in the pickling process makes the vegetables taste sour.
The conjugate acid of the weak base is what makes the product a salt.
The conjugate acid is weak.
Since HCl is a strong acid, the chloride ion has no effect on the solution's acidity.
The weak base of Chloride won't accept a protons to a measurable extent.
Any base and its conjugate acid or any acid and its conjugate base are held in this relation.
An amine is used to make dyes.
It is a salt prepared by the weak base aniline and hydrochloric acid.
The conjugate acid of a weak base is called the C6H5NH3 ion.
The NH3 is 2.3 x 10-3 and the pH is 2.64.
The conjugate base of the weak acid is what we get when we neutralize it with a strong base.
A weak base is the conjugate base.
The solution's acidity is unaffected by the sodium ion.
They only report the constants for acids.
We are given two of the three concentrations and asked to find the missing one.
The process is easy if we can find the equilibrium constant.
The ion behaves as a base in this reaction.
In the final stages of the problem, we will probably need to convert pOH to pH or H3O+.
The solution is neutral.
The solution will be acidic.
If we measure the pH of the solutions of a variety of metal ion, we will find that they act as weak acids.
An example is the aluminum ion.
Dissolved in bulk water.
The simplification of the formula of the hydronium ion, H3O+ to H+ is similar.
The hydrated aluminum ion is a weak acid and donates a protons to a water molecule.
The hydrated aluminum ion becomes a weak acid when it reacts with water.
The ionization of a cation carrying more than one charge is usually not extensive beyond the first stage.
This is a typical acid ionization problem, despite the unusual appearance of the acid.
The reaction goes to the right.
We can't calculate the extent of the metal ion's ionization because the constants for the different stages are not known.
Most hydrated metal ionize other than the alkali metals to give acidic solutions.
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