ChAPTER 6 -- Part 2: Religious Rivalries and India's Golden
The tutor of Plato would teach later in the 5th century b.c.e.
In contrast to Zoroastrianism, he formulated secular decisions that were condemned to death for criteria.
The Greek tained the ethical system by emphasizing moderation in human behavior against the philosopher, Alexander the Great, and the excesses of the gods.
Greek philosophy devoted a lot of attention to defining political structures and not strict discipline of the body.
The Greek philosopher would rule.
Greek political theories emphasize the importance of balance between the knowledge of the aristocracy and the knowledge of the people.
The proposed ideal form of the role and status of women was one of the topics discussed by Aristotle.
Although not hostile to it, a philosophy separate from official religion was placed ruled.
In the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War, the Athenian government disapproved of Socrates for he seemed to undermine political loyalty with his constant questions.
Classical Greek philosophy has a recurrent strand of the Socratic prin ciple of thinking things through skeptical questioning, rather than relying on authority or faith.
The underlying order of physical nature carried over Greek interest in rationality.
The Greeks were not as good as the Chinese.
There were few new scientific findings from Athens.
The passage begins with a slave confronting his mother, Clytemnestra, after killing her, asking why they are following a lover and suspecting that she killed his father.
I know all my slaves ask them if they are the best, most constant--thief.
Your god said the first man I fell in with to follow was the one who dropped on it.
A blind man can see that it's better to be a bad guy nowadays.
Everything is just Wealth's slave.
My son, you will kill your mother.
The kind that cost a lot, that's all.
You own the army.
Nobody has enough of you.
I am not responsible for the one.
She would rot a man.
There is one trouble here.
What values might have made Athenians enjoy Do not fear?
Greeks learned from Egyptian findings in mathematics.
The Greek concern translated into theories about the motions of the planets and the organization of the principles of fire, air, and water as a means of understanding nature's patterns.
Greek and Hellenistic work in geometry was very good, with the basic theorems of Pythagoras and Euclid's geometry.
Some important contributions were made by scientists working in Egypt or the Middle East during the Hellenistic period.
The medical writings of Galen were not improved in the Western world.
Ptolemy had an elaborate theory of the sun's motion around a stationary earth.
Middle Eastern astronomy had believed that the earth revolved around the sun.
The idea of an earth-centered universe seemed to explain many observed phenomena, and this along with the reputation of Greek science ensured that Ptolemy's theory was long taken as fixed wisdom in Western thought.
The observations about planetary motion were made more constructive by other Hellenistic scientists.
He invented pulley systems to pump out flooded ships and fortifications.
Other Hellenistic scientists made important dis coveries about the digestion and the cardiovascular system.
Science and mathematics were less important than art and literature in conveying key cultural values in Greek and Hellenistic culture.
The creation of temples, statues, and plays were justified by the official religion.
Artists and poets used the gods to ponder the human condition, while playwrights used realistic portrayals of the human form.
The arts received attention.
Music and dance performances were important parts of religious fes tivals, but their styles have not been preserved.
The Greek interest in drama was a central part of the culture.
Greek dramatists worked on both comedy and tragedy, making a formal division between the two that is still part of the Western tradition.
The Greeks put the greatest emphasis on tragedy.
In Athens's brilliant 5th century b.c.e., there was a distinct style of Greek and hellenistic architecture.
The Greeks devised less than corinthian.
The Greeks themselves were influenced by Egyptian and Cretan models of Greek and sical architecture.
The design of Greek columns moved from early doric simplicity to highly ornamented corinthian over time.
Greek culture had an interesting ten sion between the elites and the mass.
Key intellectuals like Socrates, a stonemason by trade, came from humble beginnings.
Most ordinary people were not allowed to read Greek philosophy.
Compared to China, there was no effort to get ordinary people to participate in the values of the elite.
Greek art and sculpture continued to dominate Hellenistic output, and the commercial wealth of the early Hellenistic kingdoms encouraged a lot of new building and decoration.
There was some movement toward more sentimental statuary.
New knowledge in science and mathematics was developed by Hellenistic intellectuals.
Alexander and the Hellenistic dynasty in Egypt encouraged this work, and the expansion of cultural exchange in the Mediterranean in the Middle East also favored new research.
Significant new elements were added to Greek scientific achievements.
Most of the scientific learning available to the Western world was provided by their work.
It established a basis for scientific research in the Middle East and northern Africa.
He was within 200 miles.
The other gods and mortals tricked interest in astrology and magic.
He was depicted as holding a thunderbolt in the statue.
Greek and Persian societies and economies were developed under the impact of wars and mili aristocrats.
The growth of trade and urban structures created traders and slaves.
The eastern Mediterranean and Middle East had a strong commercial spirit that would continue to play a significant role in relations.
They both relied on agriculture.
Both societies had a lot of peasants.
Grain-growing was difficult in mainland Greece, which encouraged reliance on trade for food.
Many Greek city-states established colonies in other parts of the eastern Mediterranean and southern Italy to provide adequate supplies of grain.
The military aristocracy of both societies were derived from conquering invaders.
They were involved in politics in Greece, as well as controlling larger agricultural estates.
In Persia, the large bureaucratic class operated along side the aristocracy, sometimes a bit uneasily.
Greece and Persia developed strong merchant classes.
Greek reliance on seago ing trade was crucial.
Persia's ability to take advantage of special resources in different parts of the empire encouraged the growth of commerce.
The standard for gold coinage was established by the Persian empire.
Urban centers were expanded.
The city of Athens emphasized urban life.
The capital city of the Persian empire was built in the city of Persepolis.
Sparta, with its fertile land, discouraged trade alto gether, using large coins that were so unwieldy that they could not be used for daily exchanges.
Merchants held a higher standing in Greece than in China, but it was less firm than in India or Persia.
In the Hellenistic period, Greek merchants were present in the Middle East and North Africa, playing a growing role in cultural exchange.
Both Greece and Persia relied on slavery.
People conquered in battle were included in Persian slaves.
Persians fell into slavery as a result of debts in an increasingly commercial society, which they could only pay off by selling their persons.
Through the wars, Greek city-states acquired slaves.
Philosophers like Aristotle argued that slavery was necessary to support the wise aristocracy who would guide politics and culture.
Both the Greeks and Persians used slaves.
In Persia, a few slaves rose high in the bureaucratic ranks.
The silver mines were vital to Athenian prosperity.
The Spartan helots outnumbered the spartan city-state's masters by a factor of 10 to 1.
Slavery in both Persia and Greece required military controls, although many slaves were semifree and freed by their masters.
China and India paid more attention to manufacturing technology than Greece.
Expanding the slave labor force seemed to be more obvious than considering new equipment.
The Greek concern for science as a system of thought played a role.
There was a growing emphasis on merchant activity and the importance of slavery.
Both Greek and Persian society emphasized the importance of a tight family structure, with hus band and father firmly in control.
In farming and artisan families, women had vital economic functions.
A woman with a strong personality could command a major place within a house hold, and a free woman's responsibility for family possessions was protected by law.
Women were held back in law and culture.
Free women were directed toward their husbands' interests.
The rape of a free woman in Greece was not as serious as seducing her, because it meant winning her affections away from her husband.
Infant girls are sometimes put to death by families with too many children.
Defining social History over the past 30 years has led historians to argue about their beliefs for the future.
History should focus on the great achievement of Confucius.
There are many world histories that were worth recapturing because they were focused on formal governments and intellectual history alone.
One world historian excludes ordinary people because of wars and intellectual life.
The supporting cast is irrelevant as the only groups that produce major milestones are the people who live in them.
Political protest, and world historian once argued that the lives of ordinary people military service.
During the long reign of agriculturally based or social system, there was little to know about slavery, because new inventions or big changes in the economic did not change much.
Social statesmen and thinkers were doing.
It's important to have a historical perspective on the Greek and women's roles and how they changed over time in later societies.
We can look to the past to understand how Greek leaders were chosen.
Even amid lively political developments, modern historical research does not begin or end with the only gradually.
The field of reverse may be true, with women's lives changing rapidly, social history, which has gained traction in the United States, and there is no question that social historical change can be and elsewhere over the past 40 years.
Social historians do not deny the significance of political second, patterns and changes in social history, but they argue that history affects the way governments and intellectuals function, and also consists of the doings of ordinary people.
For social historians, the past is Greece, a large gulf between wealthy and literate people that was once thought to be smaller.
Many groups of bureaucrats are from ordinary peasants or slaves.
Governments people besides the elite: women, peasants and artisans, children had to be organized in such a way as to keep ordinary people and youth.
Social historians integrate great ideas with their beliefs.
They combine attention to political forms with systems that with an understanding of the social structures and problems that would preserve a class structure yet provide enough harmony helped generate these forms.
Think about how these issues apply to classical Greece.
The formal institutions and intellec ments of Greece clearly vary depending on whether slaves or tual styles related to the mass of people are the focus or not.
What happens when you die?
Ordinary people and the structures they were Social historians do not always have an easy time fleshing out their topics.
Ordinary people didn't refer to cal leaders as conveniently.
The result is a redefinition of the # besides political development and intellectual styles, what would past and of the kinds of questions to raise about how societies the social historian try to pin down in summing up classical Greek function.
The oppression of women in this civilization was probably less severe than in China for many Greek women were active in business.
The real cultural status of women in Greek culture was low, despite the fact that Greek culture represented women as goddesses and powerful figures in drama, often with revered powers, and celebrated the female form as well as the male form in art.
The full germ of the child was claimed to be contained by male seed alone.
A woman's father arranged her marriages.
Women had to go to court to divorce husbands at will.
Adultery was allowed for men but not for women.
Many upper-class men consorted with slave and noncitizen women more often than with their wives, and there is evidence of sexual relations between men and adolescent boys they were mentoring.
Herodotus claimed that some of the Greek customs influenced Persia.
The home was the focus of women's daily duties.
The supervision of domestic slaves was one of the vital functions of women within upper-class households.
Men entertained their guests.
Older women in the household trained the female children.
During the three-day Thesmophoria in Athens, women joined together to perform rituals designed to promote the fertility of the land.
In the Hellenistic period, Greek customs mixed with patterns in the Middle East and North Africa improved conditions for citizen women.
Artists and playwrights were showing more interest in women.
Women in Hellenistic cities were more open in public.
Several queens ruled harshly.
The mother of a Hellenistic king in Sparta willingly served as a hostage to help form an alliance with a more powerful state.
Although they could not own property, Hellenistic women began to take an active role in commerce.
Classical Greece, Persia, and their successors lasted about 600 years.
Major political and social changes took place during this time.
Greece's political legacy is more about ideas than it is about political institutions such as China's emperor and bureaucracy.
Greek art and philosophy were the most lasting contributions of the classical civilization.
Greek contributions to a popular culture were limited because they did not have a major religion.
The classical civilizations of the eastern Medi terranean and the Middle East are complex to deal with.
The relationship of Greek achievements to North Americans is the first.
The framers of the United States Constitution were aware of Greek precedents.
Greek and Roman models have been copied by the designers of public buildings.
As part of the standard intellectual equipment for the educated person, the Western educational tradition has invited elaborate explorations of the Greco Roman past.
The Greek record should not be obscured by this important legacy.
The impact of Greek ideas on the Middle East was more pronounced than the Western tradition would have you believe.
The Greek approach to science had an impact on western Europe before it had an impact on the rest of the world.
The Greek example of democracy did not spread directly from Greece to other societies.
Persia is an important civilization in its own right.
Greek influence in Persia was brought about by Hellenistic conquests.
Influences were not exclusive.
Persian centralization and bureaucracy were copied by Hellenis tic kings.
Zoroastrian influences were given a wider range by cultural exchange.
The influence these religious ideas had on Mediter ranean religions was furthered by this.
There was no homogeneity.
Alexander's successors were seen as foreigners by the Persians.
As the Hellenistic states declined, more pure Persian king doms arose.
The revival of Persian political institutions and culture in their realm to the east of the Roman Empire's Middle Eastern holdings was done by Parthians and Sasanids.
The Middle East became a point of exchange under Hellenism and Persia.
Greek scholars went to Egypt to further their training.
The customs of Persian roads and institutions are very different from his own.
The cultural influences were capable of believing wild exaggerations about how some spread.
People lived, even though Greeks developed wide contacts.
Greek outreach was extended by Alexander the Great, who like other classical civilizations, did not believe in Greek superiority.
Classical Greeks forged important new contacts between the eastern Mediterra indiscriminately called non-Greeks "barbarians," and some Greek nean, the rest of the Middle East including Persia, and western city-states, like Sparta, were quite closed to outside influences.
The Greeks were interested in setting up a stron, but the system did not last.
The setting up of Greek colonies in various parts of the Mediter was an important concern that would be picked up by the Roman ranean.
They traded more widely and relied on Empire.
There are recent works on Hellenism.
What are the biggest problems in interpreting the Greek 4?