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13 -- Part 2: States and Cultures in East Asia
Its use was popularized by Zen monasteries.
The item of trade, tea, has been around for a long time.
After the development of southwest China, tea drinking became an art in Japan, with much attention to the selection and handling of tea utensils.
It was part of the offerings to ancestors as they were in China.
The tsar was presented some by the Chinese embassy.
Young camel leaves were more valuable than mature ones between the Chinese and Russian governments.
Each year, women trains would arrive in China with furs and come back to help pick the tea.
The Chinese took about a year for the round trip.
Taxes on tea became a major source of revenue in the late eighth century when Russia received more than 600 camel loads of tea.
By 1800 it had received more than 6,000 loads of government revenue.
Tea was spread in several forms, loose and compressed western Europe in the 16th century, both via Arabs and bricks.
Jesuit priests traveled on Portuguese ships to purchase tea.
In Britain, where tea drinking would become a national cheapest tea, it could cost as little as 18 cash per catty.
The most popular type of tea in the 1070s was loose tea powdered at water mills.
China exported tea to England.
Solid bricks were made for drinking from tea gardens and homes in the 18th century.
Tea became tea.
The central feature of British social life in the 19th century were government licenses.
The dynasty had control of tea.
By the end of the 18th century Britain could do this because it imported so much tea from China that it worried about the use of gunpowder.
In the wars against the Jurchens, those defending a besieged city used gunpowder to propel projectiles.
The growth of cities was fueled by the quickening of the economy.
Dozens of cities had more than fifty thousand residents, and a few had more than a hundred thousand.
In the vicinity of a million residents are the capitals of Kaifeng and Hangzhou.
The economic center of China south was shifted during the medieval economic revolution.
The north China plain had many advantages over this area.
Rice provides more calories per unit of land in the south.
Efforts to balance trade with plantations had been established in India, and India surpassed China in promoting the sale of opium to China.
The desire for fine cups to drink tea from waned as a result of the spread of the popularity of drinking tea in China and India.
The growth of tea and Chinese ceramics in India and Sri Lanka was a result of the importation of the province.
The cost of transportation was reduced because of the abundance of rivers and streams.
In the first half of the Song Dynasty, the capital was located in the north, close to the Grand Canal, which connected the capital to the rich south.
Ordinary people benefited from the Song economic revolution.
There were more opportunities for the sons of farmers to find work.
The people who stayed in agriculture had a better chance to improve their situation by making wine, charcoal, paper, or textiles.
Farmers who grow cash crops such as sugar, tea, mulberry leaves, and cotton could grow rich.
The availability of goods at the rural markets increases every five or ten days because of greater interregional trade.
Not everyone grew rich.
Rural prosperity and population of their daughters as maids, concubines, or prostitutes.
In the tenth century Tang China broke up into separate states, some of which had non- Chinese rulers.
The Song, which came to control almost all of China south of the Great Wall, and the Liao, which held the territory of modern Beijing and areas north, proved to be long-lived.
The Jin Dynasty, founded by non- Chinese people, conquered most of north China and left the Song to control only the south.
The Jin Dynasty of the Jurchens was defeated by the Mongols after a century.
The founder of the Song Dynasty, Taizu, was elevated to emperor by his troops.
Taizu put the armies under central govern ment control to make sure that such an act wouldn't happen in the future.
Civil officials were assigned to supervise the generals to curb their power.
Civil bureaucrats dominated every aspect of Song government and society.
The Sui Dynasty had a constant flow of men trained in the Confucian classics and so the civil service examination system was greatly expanded.
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