Before the development of objective methods to assess brain activity, most and is hard to awaken; eeGs reveal large, regular delta waves.
The invention of theEEG allowed researchers to measure the brain's electrical activity.
You experience many different sources of sensory activity when you are awake and conscious.
The brain is very active as a result.
The brain activity shown in Figure 3.11a is short, frequent and irregular.
When you really focus your attention on something, or when you close your eyes and relax, brain activity slows and produces the electrical pattern known as alpha waves.
Sleep typically occurs in four stages.
Your awareness of both the outer and inner world starts to decline.
Stage 1 sleep is when you can easily be aroused.
There are images or geometric shapes.
Abrupt noises may be signals from brain mechanisms involved with shutting out the external world and keeping people asleep.
Stage 3 and 4 sleep are seen as one stage because the brain activity is nearly the same.
The electrical brain activity before sleep can be seen in the eeG patterns.
They can sleep through the sounds of sirens or traffic noise, which are louder than the crying children, but are not relevant.
The sleep cycle reverses after about 90 minutes of sleep, returning to stage which is also associated with an awake, 1 sleep.
The brain shows a flurry of activity at this point.
The eyes move back and forth.
It is sometimes referred to as a sleeping body with an active brain.
REM sleep is important because of its relation to dreaming.
During non-REM sleep, they report less dreaming than dozing off in class and your whole half the time.
cycle experts don't know what through the four stages of sleep in a typical night.
Stage 1 sleep occurs when the sleep cycle becomes shorter as you respond to brain activity in the morning.
You might say you slept like a log all night long, but it's not quite true.
Although they stage 1 sleep, people awaken many times during the night, but do not remember them in the morning.
Sometimes we just moved as people age.
The conscious have a harder time going back to sleep.
People don't sleep much for the class period.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Give an example of each type of altered consciousness during ReM and non- ReM dreams.
One of life's great mysteries is dreams.
Everyone dreams if a brain injury or medication doesn't interfere with it.
The average person spends 6 years of their life dreaming.
No one knows if dreaming serves a purpose.
Both REM and non- REM sleep can cause you to dream.
REM dreams are not likely to be normal.
They may involve intense emotions, but rarely taste, smell, or pain, and an uncritical acceptance of illogical events.
You are chased by monsters, or tunnel through the center of the Earth.
Like everyday life, non-REM dreams feel normal.
They may be concerned with ordinary activities such as deciding what clothes to wear.
Different brain regions during REM and non-REM sleep may be responsible for different types of dreams.
Many brain regions are inactive during non-REM sleep.
Some areas of the brain show increased activity while others show decreased activity during REM sleep.
The brain structures associated with motivation, reward, and emotion are activated in REM dreams.
The brain regions that are more active are red and the brain regions that are less active are blue.
The motor cortex, brain stem, and visual association areas are active.
The cortex is not as active.
The brain stem and other visual association areas can be seen from beneath the brain.
The bottom of the prefrontal cortex is less active.
The brain stem and motor cortex are also activated.
The prefrontal cortex becomes less active at the same time.
The prefrontal cortex is needed for processing self-awareness, reflective thought, and conscious input from the outside world.
The brain's emotion centers and visual association areas interact without rational thought because this brain region is less active during REM dreams.
Sigmund Freud proposed one of the first theories of dreams.
As you learned in study unit 1.5, Freud was the originator of the theory.
The content represents wish fulfillment of unconscious desires in fulfillment for the wishes of the dreamer.
An image such as this in a dream can be interpreted and remembered by the dreamer.
You could fly through the air if you were fleeing from a real world dream.
If you dream of flight, you might be trying to get away from a bad relationship.
Some theorists believe that the manifest content hides the hidden content to protect the dreamer from confronting an unconscious conflict.
There is no support for Freud's ideas that dreams represent hidden conflicts and that objects in dreams have symbolic meanings.
Dreams with themes unfold as events or stories rather than as images.
There are no secret meanings to the themes.
There are many common themes in your dreams.
People in college have dreams.
You will probably dream about being unprepared even after you finish school.
Being unprepared to teach classes is a dream of retired professors.
Try it yourself is a method of studying your dreams.
It is possible to see repeating patterns in a dream journal.
According to this theory, the brain fires randomly during sleep, because of the themes in your dreams.
This random firing can show issues with parts of the brain that process sensory input.
The sleeping mind tries to make sense of the sensory activity by combining it with stored memories, and the result is a dream.
The activation- synthesis theory was revised in 2000.
Recent findings in cognitive neuroscience were taken into account.
Combining random brain activity with stored memories is a good way to do it.
The emotional content of dreams can be traced back to ConsCiousness the amygdala.
They suggested that the brain's prefrontal cortices are involved in the delusional and illogical aspects of dreams.
Critics argue that dreams are not as chaotic as we might think if they were based on random brain activity.
Most dreams are similar to waking life, with some strange features.
Researchers are still trying to figure out what causes us to dream.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Give one example from your own life of why you need to sleep in order to apply the three reasons people need to sleep.
In study unit 1.5, you learned that certain traits are adaptive.
Each species has characteristics that help it survive and reproduce in a changing environment.
Sleep doesn't seem adaptive at first glance.
If a predator pounces or you drive your car into a tree, it can be a threat to survival.
We can't avoid the need to sleep.
Our bodies shut down and we sleep.
Even if they have strange sleeping styles, most animals sleep.
In some dolphin species, the left and right cerebral hemispheres take turns sleeping.
It's important that sleep serves an important biological purpose.
It must help us respond to our environment.
There are three reasons that sleeping is beneficial to us: restoration of the body, preservation from harm and support for memory and learning.
Think about the last time you demanded physical activity, like helping a friend move or running a long race.
It's most likely that you needed more sleep.
Growth hormone, released from the endocrine system, helps bring about the repair of damaged tissue.
The immune system is strengthened by sleep and the brain replenishes energy stores.
People need more sleep after a traumatic brain injury.
One study found that people who had experienced any type of traumatic brain injury slept about an hour longer per night, and this increased sleepiness lasted at least 18 months.
When the danger of attack is greatest, sleep keeps creatures quiet and inactive.
Animals only need a small amount of time each day to survive.
It is adaptive for animals to spend the rest of their time hidden.
The amount of sleep an animal gets depends on how much time it needs to get food, how easy it is to hide, and how vulnerable it is to attack.
Small animals sleep a lot.
Large predatory animals sleep a lot.
Humans depend on vision for survival.
Our ancestors were more at risk in the dark, so we are able to sleep at night.
Scientists propose that sleep is important because it strengthens neural connections that serve as the basis of learning.
When research participants slept after learning word lists, their recall was better than in control conditions where they remained awake.
The participants learned how to run a maze.
A lion can sleep for days after a kill.
Those who slept for 90 minutes were better at the maze than those who didn't.
The people who dreamed about the maze did the best they could.
Students may experience more REM sleep during exam periods if they consolidate a lot of information.
The argument that sleep promotes the development of brain circuits for learning is supported by changes in sleep patterns over the life cycle.
Babies and young people who learn a lot in a few years spend the most time in REM sleep.
We all go through periods when we don't get enough sleep.
Studies have shown the effects of sleep deprivation on physical and mental abilities.
Most studies show that sleep deprivation has little effect on strength, athletic ability, or the performance of complex tasks.
You're not alone if you find yourself nodding off over your textbook after a night without sleep.
People find it difficult to perform quiet tasks, such as reading, when they are deprived of sleep.
A long period of sleep deprivation does not affect mental abilities.
People who suffer from chronic sleep deprivation may have trouble remembering things.
It makes people prone to try to avoid sleep, which is potentially disastrous.
If your main style of studying is the all- nighter, you should be aware of the link between sleep and learning.
In one study, students who were sleep deprived for just one night showed reduced activity the next day in the hippocampus, a brain area essential for memory.
Students who were sleep deprived showed poorer memory during testing.
Evidence shows that sleep does more than consolidate memories.
It seems that sleep prepares the brain for the next day.
The best way to prepare for exams is to study, sleep, and then study again.
Sleep deprivation contributes to over eating and weight gain by interfering with the body's hunger signals.
It contributes to accidents and injuries.
Others see us as less attractive when we are sleep deprived, compared with when we are well rested.
You will have more REM dreams when you finally sleep after a long period of deprivation.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Most people have trouble falling asleep or going back to sleep after waking up.
Problems with sleep can become a sleep disorder when they become more difficult in daily life.
There are five sleep disorders that can cause disruption.
It's 3:00 am, and you're turning over in bed for the 500th time.
You're exhausted, but your brain doesn't stop throbbing, and you're starting to feel desperate.
We all have a hard time sleeping.
You might have a sleep disorder if you experience this problem often.
Insomnia is a sleep disorder in which a person's mental health and ability to function are reduced by the repeated inability to sleep.
Insomnia is associated with reduced psychological well- being, including feelings of depression.
It is thought that between 12 percent and 20 percent of adults have insomnia; it is more common in women than in men and in older adults.
It's hard to say how many people have insomnia.
Many people who think they are poor sleepers underestimate how long it takes them to fall asleep and underestimate how much sleep they get.
Some people experience pseudoinsomnia, in which they dream they are not sleeping.
If you woke them, they would claim they had been awake.
worrying about sleep is a major cause of insomnia.
You may be tired enough to sleep if you experience this type of insomnia.
As you try to sleep, you worry about whether or not you will get enough sleep, and you may even worry about how a lack of sleep will affect you.
Normal sleep patterns are disrupted by increased arousal caused by anxiety.
It's a vicious cycle.
A disorder that is repeated to deal with insomnia.
Sleeping pills can cause inability to sleep.
A disorder in which a person sleeps may cause people to depend on pills.
If they try to stop taking the pills, they might lie awake wondering if they can sleep on their own.
The most successful treatment for insomnia combines drug therapy with cognitive- behavioral therapy, which is discussed in Chapter 15.
A disorder in which a person experiences cognitive behavioral therapy helps them overcome their worries about sleep and relieves the need for excessive sleepiness during normal drugs, which they should stop taking before the therapy ends.
Better than prescription medication for improving the quality of sleep, CBT is even better.
Poor sleeping habits are one of the factors that contribute to insomnia.
There are some techniques in Using Psychology in Your Life that you can read about.
Sleep apnea is a fairly common sleep disorder.
A person with this disorder stops breathing when they sleep.
In struggling to breathe, the person briefly awakens and gasps for air.
Sleep apnea is most common among middle- aged men and is often associated with obesity, although it is unclear if obese men are more likely to have sleep apnea.
Sleep Apnea causes people to sleep poorly, feel tired in the daytime, and have other problems.
Sleep apnea is associated with cardiovascular problems.
People with sleep apnea are unaware of their condition because they don't remember waking up frequently during the night.
Loud snoring that disturbs a partner may bring Sleep Apnea to their attention.
A man has sleep problems.
A device that blows air into the nose or mouth while the person sleeps is often prescribed by physicians.
A student who is sleep deprived is more likely to fall asleep in class than a professor who is sleepy.
Extreme sleepiness occurs during normal waking hours.
A person may go limp and collapse if they experience muscle paralysis during an episode of narcolepsy.
People with narcolepsy have to be very careful about what they do.
Depending on the situation, falling asleep without warning can be fatal.
According to evidence, there is a genetic condition that affects the transmission of a neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus.
Drugs that act as stimulants are the most popular treatments for this condition.
The normal paralysis that accompanies REM sleep is disabled in this condition.
REM behavior disorder can cause people to act out their dreams while sleeping.
They strike their sleeping partners when acting out dreams.
There is no treatment for this sleep disorder.
The condition is caused by a neurological deficit and can be seen in elderly males.
Sleepwalking is more common among young children.
It isn't a person acting out a dream.
The person is glassy eyed and seems disconnected from the surroundings.
You probably know this from what you've read.
Set your biological clock with a routine.
Changing the time you go to bed or wake up can affect your sleep cycle.
Alcohol can help you sleep more quickly, but it will interfere with your sleep cycle and make you wake up early the next day.
It will prevent you from falling asleep.
It is more difficult to fall asleep when most electronic devices emit blue light.
You can install programs that will cause the device to emit a red frequency.
Blue light can signal the body to begin winding down, but red light can be different.
Maintaining your sleep cycle will be helped by regular exercise.
Your bed is for sleeping.
Most of us don't sleep in our kitchens.
We shouldn't eat in our beds.
Your mind needs to associate sleeping with your bed.
If you want to make that association, you should only use your bed for sleeping.
An example of what not to do is write down things to do and worry about on a notepad and then put them aside until the next day.
Listen to soothing music or have a warm bath.
If you want to deal with stress and rest, you should download a couple of meditation and relaxation podcasts.
Get up and do something when you can't sleep.
We all know how well that works, so don't lie there trying to force sleep.
Let the past go away.
If you have trouble falling asleep on a particular night, don't try to make up for it by sleeping late the next morning or napping during the day.
Those are gone.
When you go to bed the next night, you want to be sleepy.
The sleep attitudes and habits you establish during college will be with you for the rest of your life.
The national sleep Foundation has additional resources at their website.
If the sleepwalker is awakened, an example of what to do harm can be done.
It is safer for a sleepwalker to be walked back to bed than it is to be left to wander around.
Write your answers to the questions and check them out.
You might think of science fiction when you hear the phrase "altered state of consciousness".
While consciousness can be altered in extreme ways, this section considers three common methods a person can use to achieve an altered state of consciousness.
Through these methods, a person's awareness of the outside world can be made fuzzy or clearer.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
A group of girls were hypnotized by a young hypnotist in June of 2012 at a school in Quebec, Canada.
Several of the girls were not able to get out of their minds.
He had to call on his mentor to break the spell.
There were a couple of students who had their heads on the table, and there were others who were in a state of mind.
There was nobody home and the eyes were open.
ConsCiousness tions, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action during a social interaction.
Some people can be affected by hypnotists, but they don't agree on whether hypnotists can produce a voluntary action.
A hypnotist can work with more than one person at a time.
The theory that hypnotized people are not the hypnotist makes a series of suggestions, such as "You are becoming sleepy."
They behave in a way that is expected of them.
"You can't move your arm," "You feel warm," and so on.
The idea of being hypnotized is altered until the hypnotist ends the session.
The hypnotist might suggest that after the session, the listener aspects of consciousness.
A posthypnotic suggestion is usually accompanied by instructions to not remember it.
A hypnotist might say, "When I say the word 'dog,' you will stand up and bark like a dog."
The person stands up and barks like a dog, to the delight of the audience.
There is evidence that shows that hypnotism has modest effects on these behaviors.
Some posthypnotic suggestions can subtly influence behaviors.
The skill of the hypnotist is more important than the skill of the hypnotized person.
The tests show that hypnotism works for people who are highly suggestible.
It is related to getting absorbed in activities easily, not being distracted, and having a rich imagination.
There are people who may be hypnotized.
A person who dislikes the idea of being hypnotized or finds it frightening would not be easy to be hypnotized.
A person must go along with the hypnotist's suggestions willingly if they are to be hypnotized.
There is no evidence that people will do things that they wouldn't normally do.
A person under hypnotism doesn't experience an altered state of consciousness according to some psychologists.
The person is aware of and willing to perform the actions called for by the hypnotist, but they are not faking.
According to the socio-cognitive theory of hypnotism, hypnotized people behave as they expect hypnotized people to behave, even if their expectations are wrong.