White-crowned sparrows sing a species-specific song, but males of a particular region have their own dialect.
The hypothesis that young white-crowned sparrows learn how to sing from older members of their species was tested.
Three groups of birds were tested.
Birds in the first group did not hear any music.
The birds sang a song that had a resemblance to the adult song.
Birds heard tapes of white-crowns singing.
They sang in the dialect of the tapes that had been played when they were 10-50 days old.
The white-crowned sparrows' dialects played before or after this sensitive period had no effect on the birds.
Birds in a third group were given an adult tutor.
The birds sang the song of the tutor species when the tutoring began.
The results show that social interactions help birds learn.
A change in behavior that involves an association between two events is called a change in behavior.
Even though you may have just eaten, the smell of freshly baked bread may entice you to have a piece.
If so, you might associate the taste of bread with being at home.
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are examples of associative learning.
An experiment by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov is one of the best examples of classical conditioning.
He began to ring a bell whenever the dogs were fed after observing that dogs salivate when presented with food.
The dogs salivated excessively whenever the bell was rung, regardless of whether food was present.
The ringing of the bell was associated with being fed by the dogs.
Ivan Pavlov was the one who discovered classical conditioning.
A bell is rung when a dog is hungry.
The amount of saliva is measured.
The dog salivates when the bell is rung.
Food and the sound of the bell are conditioned stimuli that bring about salivation.
Classical conditioning suggests that organisms can be trained to associate a response with a specific stimuli.
When salivation follows the presentation of food, conditioned responses occur naturally.
When a dog learns to salivate when it hears a bell, it is conditioned.
Classical conditioning can be used to sell products.
They might buy the product because of this pleasant association.
When trying to increase beneficial behaviors, some types of classical conditioning can be helpful.
It has been suggested that you hold a child on your lap while reading to them.
The hope is that the child will enjoy reading.
Operant conditioning is a method of changing behavior.
It is important to give an animal a reward when teaching it a trick, as most people know.
Operant conditioning is used by animal trainers.
They give a reward to the animal for jumping through the hoop, and then give a stimulation to the animal.
Sometimes the reward doesn't need to be immediate, like when a squirrel makes a mental map of where they have hidden nuts.
B. F. Skinner studied this type of learning in the lab.
In the simplest type of experiment he did, a caged rat inadvertently pressed a lever and was rewarded with sugar pellets, which it avidly consumed.
The rat learned to press the lever when it wanted a sugar pellet.
Pigeons were taught to play Ping-Pong by Skinner in more sophisticated experiments.
It has been suggested that parents who give positive reinforcement for good behavior will be more successful than parents who punish bad behavior.
Traveling from one location to another is called migration.
Loggerhead sea turtles hatch on a Florida beach and then travel across the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, which has an abundance of food.
Females who are pregnant return to the same beaches to lay their eggs.
monarch butterflies fly from North America to Mexico where they breed in the spring.
Birds have been used in most of the orientation research.
Birds can use the sun and stars to orient themselves.
The birds have a sense of time because the sun moves across the sky during the day.
They are thought to have a biological clock that tells them where the sun will be in relation to where they should be.
Birds with experience can change direction in response to environmental clues.
The clues come from the Earth's magnetic field.
Starlings migrate from the Baltics to Great Britain and back.
Test starlings were taken to Switzerland.
Birds who have corrected their flight pattern got to Great Britain.
Young birds ended up in Spain.
There is a Starling migratory experiment.
Inexperienced birds flew in the same direction and ended up in Spain.
The birds still arrived in Great Britain, as evidenced by the fact that they had learned to navigate.
In the wake of recent videos on the internet showing dogs expressing joy when their owners come back from long absences, investigators are more interested in determining the extent to which animals have emotions.
The body language of animals can be used to indicate their feelings.
When wolves are together, they wag their tails, whine, and jump up and down.
Dogs chase their own tails when they play with one another.
On the other side of the spectrum, on the death of a friend or parent, chimp's are apt to stop eating and even die.
It's reasonable to think that animals are happy when they are together, enjoy themselves when they play, and grieve over the loss of a close friend or relative.
Most people agree that an animal feels some type of emotion when it exhibits certain behaviors.
Scientists used to collect data only about observable behavior and not the mental state of an animal.
The research method used by B. F. Skinner was described in this chapter.
He and others didn't consider that animals might have feelings.
Some scientists believe that they have enough data to suggest that some animals express emotions such as fear, joy, embarrassment, jealousy, anger, love, sadness, and grief.
Multiple instances of soldiers returning from combat have shown how dogs react to seeing their owners.
On many occasions, the dogs run in circles, jump up and down, and lick their owner's face.
As they greet their owners, they can be heard crying and screaming.
When the mother can't locate her offspring within the enclosure, she begins to scream and shake in an attempt to find her child.
Charles Darwin said that animals are different in degree rather than in kind.
It is possible that animals can feel love but not as much as humans can.
It is not likely that emotions first appeared in humans and animals.
Dopamine regulates the reward and pleasure center in the brain.
Rats with high levels of dopamine in their brain are more likely to play.
Field research is helping researchers understand how animal emotions correlate with their behavior.
There are two causes of migratory behavior.
Birds are told it is time to travel by environmental stimuli.
It is possible to reach an environment that is more favorable for survival and reproduction.
The benefit must outweigh the cost in order for the behavior to persist.
Animals can learn through observation, imitation, and insight.
Japanese macaques learn to eat sweet potatoes by imitating others.
Insight learning occurs when an animal knows how to solve a problem.
The animal appears to know how to solve a problem.
Chimpanzees have been observed stacking boxes to reach bananas.
Other animals seem to be able to reason things out.
In one experiment, ravens were offered meat that was attached to a string from a branch.
The ravens had no idea how strings work.
It took several hours, but one raven flew to the branch, reached down, grabbed the string with its beak, and pulled the string up over and over again, each time securing the string with its foot.
Ravens were able to get the meat by pulling up the string with the meat on it.
If the raven pulled up on the string, it could reach the food.
Animals are capable of planning.
A sea otter will use a rock as a hard surface to bash open clams.
A Chimpanzees uses leaves from a twig to secure a nest of termites.
Many people wonder if animals have emotions.
This is an area that is of interest.
"Do Animals Have Emotions?"
is a feature in the Nature of Science.
When an animal doesn't want to eat bumblebees after being stung, name the type of learning that occurs.
Instinct and learning may interact as behavior develops.